Foundations of Physics

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 712–730

On the Sharpness and Bias of Quantum Effects


DOI: 10.1007/s10701-009-9287-8

Cite this article as:
Busch, P. Found Phys (2009) 39: 712. doi:10.1007/s10701-009-9287-8


The question of quantifying the sharpness (or unsharpness) of a quantum mechanical effect is investigated. Apart from sharpness, another property, bias, is found to be relevant for the joint measurability or coexistence of two effects. Measures of bias will be defined and examples given.


Quantum measurementJoint observableCoexistenceEffectUnsharp observableBias

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsUniversity of YorkYorkUK