Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 489-501

First online:

Biochemical and histological changes in the liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon

  • Mahdi BanaeeAffiliated withDepartment of Aquaculture, Natural Resource and Environmental Faculty, Behbahan University of Technology Email author 
  • , Antoni SuredaAffiliated withGrup de Nutrició Comunitària i Estrès Oxidatiu (IUNICS); Department of Biology Science, Balearic Islands University
  • , Ali Reza MirvaghefiAffiliated withDepartment of Fishery and Environment, Natural Resource Faculty, University of Tehran
  • , Kamal AhmadiAffiliated withYoung Researchers Club, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University

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The organophosphate insecticide diazinon is widely used to control pest in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and histopathological changes in the liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L of a commercial formula of diazinon for a period of 28 days. Antioxidant enzyme activities—catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase—were determined after 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure. Histopathological analyses were performed at the 28th day. All antioxidant enzymes were induced after 7 days of diazinon treatment in both concentrations of diazinon. Catalase and superoxide dismutase maintained elevated activities during all the treatment period. Glutathione peroxidase activity returned to the control values at the 14th day, decreasing to values below control at the 28th day in both diazinon concentrations. Glutathione reductase maintained increased activities at the 14th day in the 0.1 mg/L diazinon, decreasing to control values at the 28th day. In the 0.2 mg/L group, the activity returned to control values at the 14th and decreased below the control at the 28th day. Total antioxidant capacity of hepatocytes significantly decreased in fishes exposed to diazinon during all experimental periods. Hypertrophy of hepatocytes, vacuolization of cell cytoplasm and hepatocyte cloudy swelling were observed in the liver tissue of fish exposed to both concentrations of diazinon. The results showed that diazinon altered the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the cellular total antioxidant capacity inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage in hepatocytes evidenced by histopathological analysis.


Diazinon Rainbow trout Total antioxidant Antioxidant enzyme Liver Histopathology