Original Article

Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 237-269

First online:

Solar Particle Acceleration Radiation and Kinetics (SPARK)

A mission to understand the nature of particle acceleration
  • Sarah A. MatthewsAffiliated withUCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory Email author 
  • , David R. WilliamsAffiliated withUCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory
  • , Karl-Ludwig KleinAffiliated withLESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon
  • , Eduard P. KontarAffiliated withSUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow
  • , David M. SmithAffiliated withUC Santa Cruz
  • , Andreas LaggAffiliated withMPS
  • , Sam KruckerAffiliated withUC BerkeleyUniversity of Applied Sciences, North Western Switzerland (FHNW)
  • , Gordon J. HurfordAffiliated withSpace Sciences Lab. UC Berkeley
  • , Nicole VilmerAffiliated withLESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon
    • , Alexander L. MacKinnonAffiliated withSUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow
    • , Valentina V. ZharkovaAffiliated withUniversity of Bradford
    • , Lyndsay FletcherAffiliated withSUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow
    • , Iain G. HannahAffiliated withSUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow
    • , Philippa K. BrowningAffiliated withUniversity of Manchester
    • , Davina E. InnesAffiliated withMPS
    • , Gerard TrottetAffiliated withLESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon
    • , Clare FoullonAffiliated withUniversity of Warwick
    • , Valery M. NakariakovAffiliated withUniversity of Warwick
    • , Lucie M. GreenAffiliated withUCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory
    • , Herve LamoureuxAffiliated withUCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory
    • , Colin ForsythAffiliated withUCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory
    • , David M. WaltonAffiliated withUCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory
    • , Mihalis MathioudakisAffiliated withQueen’s University Belfast
    • , Achim GandorferAffiliated withMPS
    • , Valentin Martinez-PilletAffiliated withInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias
    • , Olivier LimousinAffiliated withCEA Saclay
    • , Erwin VerwichteAffiliated withUniversity of Warwick
    • , Silvia DallaAffiliated withUCLan
    • , Gottfried MannAffiliated withAIP
    • , Henri AurassAffiliated withAIP
    • , Thomas NeukirchAffiliated withUniversity of St. Andrews

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Energetic particles are critical components of plasma populations found throughout the universe. In many cases particles are accelerated to relativistic energies and represent a substantial fraction of the total energy of the system, thus requiring extremely efficient acceleration processes. The production of accelerated particles also appears coupled to magnetic field evolution in astrophysical plasmas through the turbulent magnetic fields produced by diffusive shock acceleration. Particle acceleration is thus a key component in helping to understand the origin and evolution of magnetic structures in, e.g. galaxies. The proximity of the Sun and the range of high-resolution diagnostics available within the solar atmosphere offers unique opportunities to study the processes involved in particle acceleration through the use of a combination of remote sensing observations of the radiative signatures of accelerated particles, and of their plasma and magnetic environment. The SPARK concept targets the broad range of energy, spatial and temporal scales over which particle acceleration occurs in the solar atmosphere, in order to determine how and where energetic particles are accelerated. SPARK combines highly complementary imaging and spectroscopic observations of radiation from energetic electrons, protons and ions set in their plasma and magnetic context. The payload comprises focusing-optics X-ray imaging covering the range from 1 to 60 keV; indirect HXR imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 200 keV, γ-ray spectroscopic imaging with high-resolution LaBr3 scintillators, and photometry and source localisation at far-infrared wavelengths. The plasma environment of the regions of acceleration and interaction will be probed using soft X-ray imaging of the corona and vector magnetography of the photosphere and chromosphere. SPARK is designed for solar research. However, in addition it will be able to provide exciting new insights into the origin of particle acceleration in other regimes, including terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGF), the origin of γ-ray bursts, and the possible existence of axions.


Sun: atmosphere Particle acceleration Space missions: instruments ESA Cosmic vision