Date: 07 Sep 2006
Biomonitoring of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in Streams Draining Lead-Mining and Non-Mining Areas, Southeast Missouri, USA
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We evaluated exposure of aquatic biota to lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in streams draining a Pb-mining district in southeast Missouri. Samples of plant biomass (detritus, periphyton, and filamentous algae), invertebrates (snails, crayfish, and riffle benthos), and two taxa of fish were collected from seven sites closest to mining areas (mining sites), four sites further downstream from mining (downstream sites), and eight reference sites in fall 2001. Samples of plant biomass from mining sites had highest metal concentrations, with means 10- to 60-times greater than those for reference sites. Mean metal concentrations in over 90% of samples of plant biomass from mining sites were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Mean concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in most invertebrate samples from mining sites, and mean Pb concentrations in most fish samples from mining sites, were also significantly greater than those from reference sites. Concentrations of all three metals were lower in samples from downstream sites, but several samples of plant biomass from downstream sites had metal concentrations significantly greater than those from reference sites. Analysis of supplemental samples collected in the fall of 2002, a year of above-average stream discharge, had lower Pb concentrations and higher Cd concentrations than samples collected in 2001, near the end of a multi-year drought. Concentrations of Pb measured in fish and invertebrates collected from mining sites during 2001 and 2002 were similar to those measured at nearby sites in the 1970s, during the early years of mining in the Viburnum Trend. Results of this study demonstrate that long-term Pb mining activity in southeast Missouri has resulted in significantly elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn in biota of receiving streams, compared to biota of similar streams without direct influence of mining. Our results also demonstrate that metal exposure in the study area differed significantly among sample types, habitats, and years, and that these factors should be carefully considered in the design of biomonitoring studies.
Allen, G. T., & Wilson, R. W. (1992). Trace elements and organic compounds in the Spring River basin of southeastern Kansas in 1988. Contaminant Report, R6/505M/91, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Manhattan, Kansas.
Besser, J. M., Brumbaugh, W. G., May, T. W., Church, S. E., & Kimball, B. A. (2001). Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 40, 48–59.CrossRef
Besser, J. M., & Leib, K. J. (2005). Toxicity of metals in water and sediment to aquatic biota. Chapter E20. In S. E. Church, P. von Guerard, & S. E. Finger (Eds.), Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in Upper Animas Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado, Professional Paper (1651). Denver, Colorado: US Geological Survey.
Blus, L. J., Henny, C. J., Hoffman, D. J., & Grove, R. A. (1991). Lead toxicosis in tundra swans near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 21, 549–555.CrossRef
Brumbaugh, W. G., Schmitt, C. J., & May, T. W. (2005). Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 49, 76–88.CrossRef
Croteau, M.-N., Luoma, S. N., & Stewart, A. R. (2005). Trophic transfer of metals along freshwater food webs: Evidence of cadmium biomagnification in nature. Limnology and Oceanography, 50, 1511–1519.CrossRef
Czarneski, J. M. (1985). Accumulation of lead in fish from Missouri streams impacted by lead mining. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 34, 736–745.CrossRef
Duchrow, R. M. (1983). Effects of lead tailings on benthos and water quality in three Ozark streams. Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science, 17, 5–17.
Farag, A. M., Skaar, D., Nimick, D. A., Macconnell, E., & Hogstrand, C. (2003). Characterization of aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder river watershed, Montana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132, 450–467.CrossRef
Farag, A. M., Woodward, D. F., Brumbaugh, W. G., Goldstein, J. N., MacConnell, E., & Hogstrand, C. (1999). Dietary effects of metals-contaminated invertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, on cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 128, 578–592.CrossRef
Farag, A. M., Woodward, D. F., Goldstein, J. N., Brumbaugh, W. G., & Meyer, J. S. (1998). Concentrations of metals associated with mining waste in sediments, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish from the Coeur d'Alene River basin, Idaho. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 34, 119–127.CrossRef
Feder, G. L., & Barks, J. H. (1972). A losing drainage basin in the Missouri Ozarks identified on side-looking radar imagery. Professional Paper, 800-C, US Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, pp. C249–C252.
Femmer, S. R. (2004). Background and comparison of water-quality, streambed-sediment, and biological characteristics of streams in the Viburnum Trend and the exploration study areas, southern Missouri. Water-Resources Investigations Report, 03–4285, US Geological Survey, Rolla, Missouri.
Hinck, J. E., Schmitt, C. J, Blazer, V. S., Denslow, N. D., Bartish, T. M., Anderson, P. J., et al. (2006). Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: Spatial and temporal trends. Science of the Total Environment, 366, 549–578.
Hornberger, M. I., Lambing, J. H., Luoma, S. N., & Axtmann, E. V. (1997). Spatial and temporal trends in trace metals in water, bed sediment, and biota of the upper Clark Fork river basin, Montana: 1985–1995. Open File Report, 97–669, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California.
Humphrey, S., & Lister, K. (2004). Biological assessment study: Indian Creek and Courtois Creek, Washington County, 2001–2002. Jefferson City, Missouri: Missouri Department of Natural Resources.
Imes, J. L. (2002). Geohydrologic and biological investigations associated with a new lead–zinc exploration area near Winona, Missouri, and the Viburnum Trend of southeastern Missouri. Fact Sheet, 005-02, US Geological Survey, Rolla, Missouri.
Kleeschulte, M. J. (2000). Ground-and surface-water relations in the Eleven Point and Current River Basins, south-central Missouri, Fact Sheet, 032–00, US Geological Survey, Rolla, Missouri.
Lee, R. C. L. (2000). The effect of Mississippi Valley-Type mineralization on the natural background chemistry of groundwater in the Ozark Plateaus region of the United States. Unpublished Master's thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Lister, K., & Humphrey, S. (2004). Biological assessment and fine sediment study of the Big River, 2002–03. Jefferson City, Missouri: Missouri Department of Natural Resources.
May, T. W., Wiedmeyer, R. H., Brumbaugh, W. G., & Schmitt, C. J. (1997). The determination of metals in sediment pore waters and in 1N HCl-extracted sediments by ICP-MS. Atomic Spectroscopy, 18, 133–139.
Nimick, D. A., Cleasby, T. E., & McClesky, R. B. (2005). Seasonality of diel cycles of dissolved trace-metal concentrations in a Rocky Mountain stream. Environmental Geology, 47, 603–614.CrossRef
Petersen, J. C., Adamski, J. C., Bell, R. W., Davis, J. V., Femmer, S. R., Freiwald, D. A., et al. (1998). Water quality in the Ozark Plateaus, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, 1992–95. Circular, 1158, US Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.
Pflieger, W. L. (1997). The Fishes of Missouri. Jefferson City, Missouri: Missouri Department of Conservation.
Ryck, F. M., & Whitley, J. R. (1974). Pollution abatement in the lead mining district of Missouri. Proceedings of the Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, 29, 857–863.
Schmitt, C. J., & Brumbaugh, W. G. (1990). National contaminant biomonitoring program: Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. freshwater fish, 1976–1984. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 19, 731–747.CrossRef
Schmitt, C. J., & Finger, S. E. (1982). The dynamics of metals from past and present mining activities in the Big and Black River watershed, southeastern Missouri. Final report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, Missouri.
Schmitt, C. J., Whyte, J. J., Annis, M. L, Roberts, A. P., & Tillitt, D. E. (2006). Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead–zinc mining areas of southeastern Missouri, USA. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (in press).
Schmitt, C. J., Wildhaber, M. L., Hunn, J. B., Nash, T., Tieger, M. N., & Steadman, B. L. (1993). Biomonitoring of lead-contaminated Missouri streams with an assay for erythrocyte (d)-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in fish blood. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 25, 464–475.CrossRef
Sorensen, E. M. B. (1991). Metal Poisoning in Fish. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
USDA Forest Service (2005). 2005 Land and water management plan, Mark Twain National Forest. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Milwaukee Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/marktwain/projects/forest_plan/.
Wixson, B. G. (Ed.) (1977). The Missouri Lead Study, Volume 1: An interdisciplinary investigation of environmental pollution by lead and other heavy metals from industrial development in the New Lead Belt of southeastern Missouri. Final report to National Science Foundation, Research Applied to National Needs Program, University of Missouri, Columbia and Rolla, Missouri.
Wixson, B. G. (1978). Biogeochemical cycling of lead in the New Lead Belt of Missouri. In J. O. Nriagu (Ed.), The Biogeochemistry of Lead in the Environment. (pp. 119–136). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.
- Biomonitoring of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in Streams Draining Lead-Mining and Non-Mining Areas, Southeast Missouri, USA
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume 129, Issue 1-3 , pp 227-241
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Food web
- Industry Sectors