European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 120, Issue 1, pp 35–42

Horizontal transmission of hypoviruses between vegetative compatibility types of Cryphonectria parasitica in Macedonia

  • I. Papazova-Anakieva
  • K. Sotirovski
  • P. Cortesi
  • M. G. Milgroom
Full Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10658-007-9191-z

Cite this article as:
Papazova-Anakieva, I., Sotirovski, K., Cortesi, P. et al. Eur J Plant Pathol (2008) 120: 35. doi:10.1007/s10658-007-9191-z


Biological control of chestnut blight with hypovirulence depends on the successful transmission of hypoviruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Vegetative incompatibility inhibits horizontal virus transmission, but not completely. In an effort to assess the potential for the spread of hypoviruses in the Republic of Macedonia, we studied the transmission of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) among the five observed vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica. One fungal isolate of each vc type was infected with CHV-1 and was paired in vitro with isolates of all other vc types for a total of 20 combinations of virus donors and recipients, and 250 replicate trials per combination. Virus transmission was scored after 7 days as successful if the recipient isolate took on an unpigmented culture phenotype typical of virus infection. Transmission occurred at high frequencies between some pairs of vc types, but in <1% of the trials for 10 of the 20 combinations of donors and recipients. Asymmetric transmission was observed between some vc types that had different alleles at vegetative incompatibility loci vic1 or vic7; i.e., transmission occurred at high frequencies in one direction, but very low frequencies between the same pair of isolates in the opposite direction. The expected virus transmission, calculated as the average transmission predicted for any two randomly chosen individuals from a population, was highly negatively correlated to vc type diversity. Results for isolates of C. parasitica from Macedonia were similar to those from Italy, but less transmission was generally observed. Differences in genetic background effects on transmission may vary among different populations even when isolates differ by the same vic alleles.


Biological control Chestnut blight fungus Hypovirulence Mycovirus Vegetative incompatibility Virus transmission 



cryphonectria hypovirus 1

vc type

vegetative compatibility type


vegetative incompatibility

Copyright information

© KNPV 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Papazova-Anakieva
    • 1
  • K. Sotirovski
    • 1
  • P. Cortesi
    • 2
  • M. G. Milgroom
    • 3
  1. 1.Sumarski fakultetUniverzitet “Sv. Kiril i Metodij”SkopjeRepublic of Macedonia
  2. 2.Istituto di Patologia VegetaleUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA