Original paper

Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 705-714

First online:

Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash

  • Deok Hyun MoonAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Engineering, Chosun University Email author 
  • , Jae-Woo ParkAffiliated withDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University
  • , Kyung Hoon CheongAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Engineering, Chosun University
  • , Seunghun HyunAffiliated withDivision of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University
  • , Agamemnon KoutsospyrosAffiliated withMechanical, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New Haven
  • , Jeong-Hun ParkAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Engineering, Chonnam National University
  • , Yong Sik OkAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University

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A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM–EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS–FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS–FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.


Lead Copper Stabilization Oyster shell Fly ash