Adams, J. A. (1971). A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3, 111–150.
Anderson, J. R. (1987). Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions. Psychological Review, 94
Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46
Beilock, S. L., & Carr, T. H. (2001). On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130
Beilock, S. L., & Carr, T. H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and “choking under pressure” in math. Psychological Science, 16
Beilock, S. L., Wierenga, S. A., & Carr, T. H. (2002). Expertise, attention, and memory in sensorimotor skill execution: Impact of novel task constraints on dual-task performance and episodic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 55A, 1211–1240.
Beilock, S. L., Bertenthal, B. I., McCoy, A. M., & Carr, T. H. (2004). Haste does not always make waste: Expertise, direction of attention, and speed versus accuracy in performing sensorimotor skills. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11
Beilock, S. L., Jellison, W. A., Rydell, R. J., McConnell, A. R., & Carr, T. H. (2006). On the causal mechanisms of stereotype threat: Can skills that don’t rely heavily on working memory still be threatened? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32
Bennett, H. L. (1983). Remembering drink orders: The memory skill of cocktail waitresses. Human Learning, 2, 157–169.
Blayney, P., Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2010). Interactions between the isolated–interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise: Experimental evidence from an accountancy class. Instructional Science, 38
Bordage, G. (1994). Elaborated knowledge: A key to successful diagnostic thinking. Academic Medicine, 69
Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Schmidt, H. G. (1992). On the role of biomedical knowledge in clinical reasoning by experts, intermediates and novices. Cognitive Science, 16
Butler, J. L., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The trouble with friendly faces: Skilled performance with a supportive audience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75
Camerer, C. F., & Johnson, E. J. (1991). The process–performance paradox in expert judgment: How can experts know so much and predict so badly? In K. A. Ericsson & J. Smith (Eds.), Toward a general theory of expertise (pp. 195–217). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chamberland, M., St-Onge, C., Setrakian, J., Lanthier, L., Bergeron, L., Bourget, A., Mamede, S., Schmidt, H., & Rikers, R. (2011). The influence of medical students' self-explanations on diagnostic performance. Medical Education, 45
Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4
Chi, M. (1994). Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 18, 439–477.
Clarke, T., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J. (2005). The impact of sequencing and prior knowledge on learning mathematics through spreadsheet applications. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53
Cronbach, L. (1967). How can instruction be adapted to individual differences. In R. Gagne (Ed.), Learning and individual differences (pp. 23–39). Columbus: Merrill.
Cronbach, L., & Snow, R. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington.
Custers, E. J. F. M., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Schmidt, H. G. (1998). The role of illness scripts in the development of medical diagnostic expertise: Results from an interview study. Cognition and Instruction, 16
De Bruin, A. B. H., Van De Wiel, M. W. J., Rikers, R. M. J. P., & Schmidt, H. G. (2005). Examining the stability of experts’ clinical case processing: An experimental manipulation. Instructional Science, 33
De Groot, A. (1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton. (Original work published 1946).
Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Erlinger, J., & Kruger, J. (2003). Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12
Dunning, D., Heath, C., & Suls, J. M. (2004). Flawed self-assessment: Implications for health, education, and the workplace. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5
Ericsson, K. A. (1985). Memory skill. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39
Ericsson, K. A. (2005). Recent advances in expertise research: A commentary on the contributions to the special issue. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19
Ericsson, K. A. (2006). The influence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, R. R. Hoffman, & P. J. Feltovich (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 39–68). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ericsson, K. A., & Lehmann, A. C. (1996). Expert and exceptional performance: Maximal adaptation to task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology, 47
Ericsson, K. A., & Polson, P. G. (1988). A cognitive analysis of exceptional memory for restaurant orders. In M. T. H. Chi, R. Glaser, & M. J. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge: Bradford Books/MIT Press.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (Rev. Ed.). Cambridge: Bradford Books/MIT Press.
Eva, K. W., Norman, G. R., Neville, A. J., Wood, T. J., & Brooks, L. R. (2002). Expert–novice differences in memory: A reformulation. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 14
Feltovich, P. J., & Barrows, H. S. (1984). Issues of generality in medical problem solving. In H. G. Schmidt & M. L. De Volder (Eds.), Tutorials in problem-based learning (pp. 128–142). Assen: Van Gorcum.
Fitts, P. M., & Posner, M. I. (1967). Human performance. Belmont: Brooks/Cole.
Gilhooly, K. J. (1996). Thinking: Directed, undirected and creative (3rd ed.). London: Academic.
Gilhooly, K. J., & Simpson, S. (1992). Deep knowledge in human medical expertise. In E. Keravnou (Ed.), Deep models for medical knowledge in engineering (pp. 273–285). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Gobet, F., & Simon, H. A. (1996). Recall of rapidly presented random chess positions is a function of skill. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3
Gray, R. (2004). Attending to the execution of a complex sensorimotor skill: Expertise differences, choking, and slumps. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10
Gucciardi, D. F., & Dimmock, J. A. (2008). Choking under pressure in sensorimotor skills: Conscious processing or depleted attentional resources? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9
Haerem, T., & Rau, D. (2007). The influence of degree of expertise and objective task complexity on perceived task complexity and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92
Jensen, A. R. (1990). Speed of information processing in a calculating prodigy. Intelligence, 14
Jordet, G., & Hartman, E. (2008). Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 450–457.
Kalyuga, S. (2006a). Assessment of learners’ organized knowledge structures in adaptive learning environments. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20
Kalyuga, S. (2006b). Rapid cognitive assessment of learners’ knowledge structures. Learning and Instruction, 16
Kalyuga, S. (2007). Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 19
Kalyuga, S. (2008). When less is more in cognitive diagnosis: A rapid assessment method for adaptive learning environments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100
Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory: How many types of load does it really need? Educational Psychology Review, 23
Kalyuga, S., & Renkl, A. (2010). Expertise reversal effect and its instructional implications. Instructional Science, 38
Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2004). Measuring knowledge to optimize cognitive load factors during instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96
Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2005). Rapid dynamic assessment of expertise to improve the efficiency of adaptive e-learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53
Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1998). Levels of expertise and instructional design. Human Factors, 40
Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2000). Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92
Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2001a). Learner experience and efficiency of instructional guidance. Educational Psychology, 21
Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001b). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 579–588.
Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38
Kalyuga, S., Renkl, A., & Paas, F. (2010). Facilitating flexible problem solving: A cognitive load perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 22
Lewis, B. P., & Linder, D. E. (1997). Thinking about choking? Attentional processes and paradoxical performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23
Lombrozo, T. (2006). The structure and function of explanations. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10
Luchins, A. S., & Luchins, E. H. (1987). Einstellung effects. Science, New Series, 238(4827), 598. (Oct. 30, 1987).
Masters, R. S. W. (1992). Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology, 83
Newell, A. (1991). Motor skill acquisition. Annual Review of Psychology, 42
Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84
Norman, G. R., Brooks, L. R., & Allen, S. W. (1989). Recall by expert medical practitioners and novices as a record of processing attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 15, 1166–1174.
Oksa, A., Kalyuga, S., & Chandler, P. (2010). Expertise reversal effect in using explanatory notes for readers of Shakespearean text. Instructional Science, 38
Paas, F. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84
Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86
Paas, F., Renkl, A., & Sweller, J. (2003). Cognitive load theory and instructional design: Recent developments. Educational Psychologist, 38
Paas, F., Renkl, A., & Sweller, J. (2004). Cognitive load theory: Instructional implications of the interaction between information structures and cognitive architecture. Instructional Science, 32
Paas, F., Tuovinen, J. E., Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., & Darabi, A. A. (2005). A motivational perspective on the relation between mental effort and performance. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53
Patel, V. L., & Groen, G. J. (1986). Knowledge based solution strategies in medical reasoning. Cognitive Science, 10
Patel, V. L., & Groen, G. J. (1991). Developmental accounts of the transition from medical student to doctor: Some problems and suggestions. Medical Education, 25
Patel, V. L., Evans, D. A., & Groen, G. J. (1989). Biomedical knowledge and clinical reasoning. In D. A. Evans & V. L. Patel (Eds.), Cognitive science in medicine: Biomedical modeling (pp. 53–112). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Patel, V. L., Groen, G. J., & Arocha, J. F. (1990). Medical expertise as a function of task difficulty. Memory and Cognition, 18
Pollock, E., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2002). Assimilating complex information. Learning and Instruction, 12
Reisslein, J., Atkinson, R. K., Seeling, P., & Reisslein, M. (2006). Encountering the expertise reversal effect with a computer-based environment on electrical circuit analysis. Learning and Instruction, 16
Renkl, A. (1997). Learning from worked-out examples: A study on individual differences. Cognitive Science, 21
Renkl, A., & Atkinson, R. K. (2003). Structuring the transition from example study to problem solving in cognitive skills acquisition: A cognitive load perspective. Educational Psychologist, 38
Rikers, R. M. J. P., Schmidt, H. G., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2000). Knowledge encapsulation and the intermediate effect. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25
Rikers, R. M. J. P., Schmidt, H. G., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2002). On the constraints of encapsulated knowledge: Clinical case representations by medical experts and subexperts. Cognition and Instruction, 20
Rikers, R. M., Loyens, S., te Winkel, W., Schmidt, H. G., & Sins, P. H. (2005). The role of biomedical knowledge in clinical reasoning: A lexical decision study. Academic Medicine, 80
Schmidt, R. A. (1975). A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 82
Schmidt, H. G., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (1992). Encapsulation of biomedical knowledge. In D. A. Evans & V. L. Patel (Eds.), Advanced models of cognition for medical training and practice (pp. 265–282). New York: Springer.
Schmidt, H. G., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (1993). On the origin of intermediate effects in clinical case recall. Memory and Cognition, 21
Schmidt, H. G., & Rikers, R. M. J. P. (2007). How expertise develops in medicine: Knowledge encapsulation and illness script formation. Medical Education, 41, 1133–1139.
Schmidt, H. G., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Hobus, P. P. M. (1988). Transitory stages in the development of medical expertise: The “intermediate effect” in clinical case representation studies. In Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society Meeting (pp. 139–145). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Schnotz, W. (2010). Reanalyzing the expertise reversal effect. Instructional Science, 38
Schnotz, W., & Kürschner, C. (2007). A reconsideration of cognitive load theory. Educational Psychology Review, 19
Simpson, S. A., & Gilhooly, K. J. (1997). Diagnostic thinking processes: Evidence from a constructive interaction study of electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11
Snow, R., & Lohman, D. (1984). Toward a theory of cognitive aptitude for learning from instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76
Sweller, J. (2010). Element interactivity and intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Educational Psychology Review, 22
Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory
. New York: Springer.CrossRef
Tobias, S. (1976). Achievement treatment interactions. Review of Educational Research, 46, 61–74.
Tobias, S. (1989). Another look at research on the adaptation of instruction to student characteristics. Educational Psychologist, 24
Tobias, S. (2010). The expertise reversal effect and aptitude treatment interaction research. Instructional Science, 38
Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (1999). A comparison of cognitive load associated with discovery learning and worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91
Van de Wiel, M. W. J., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Schmidt, H. G. (2000). Knowledge restructuring in expertise development: Evidence from pathophysiological representations of clinical cases by students and physicians. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12
Van Gog, T., Ericsson, K. A., Rikers, R. M. J. P., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 53
Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1990). Strategies for programming instruction in high school: Program completion vs. program generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 6
Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (1990). Automation and schema acquisition in learning elementary computer programming: Implications for the design of practice. Computers in Human Behavior, 6
Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., Rikers, R. M. J. P., Schmidt, H. G., Van de Wiel, M. W. J., & Kooman, J. P. (2004). Case representation by medical experts, intermediates and novices for laboratory data presented with and without a clinical context. Medical Education, 38
Vincente, K. J., & Wang, J. H. (1998). An ecological theory of expertise effects in memory recall. Psychological Review, 105
Wiley, J. (1998). Expertise as a mental set: The effects of domain knowledge in creative problem solving. Memory & Cognition, 26
Wimmers, P. F., Schmidt, H. G., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., & Van de Wiel, M. W. J. (2005). Inducing expertise effects in clinical case recall. Medical Education, 39
Wright, E. F., Jackson, W., Christie, S. D., McGuire, G. R., et al. (1991). The home-course disadvantage in golf championships: Further evidence for the undermining effect of supportive audiences on performance under pressure. Journal of Sport Behavior, 14, 51–60.
Wright, E. F., Voyer, D., Wright, R. D., & Roney, C. (1995). Supporting audiences and performance under pressure: The home-ice disadvantage in hockey championships. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18, 21–28.
Wulf, G., Shea, C., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Motor skill learning and performance: A review of influential factors. Medical Education, 44
Yeung, A. S., Jin, P., & Sweller, J. (1998). Cognitive load and learner expertise: Split attention and redundancy effects in reading with explanatory notes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23
Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1997). Developmental phases in self-regulation: Shifting from process goals to outcome goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89