### Reference of Studies Used in This Meta-Analysis

*Ash, J. (2005). The effects of computer-assisted instruction on middle school mathematics achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Tennessee State University.*Berryman, H. (1999). The effects of technology education labs on third grade mathematics scores. University of Sarasota, Sarasota, FL.*Blanton, W. E., Moorman, G. B., Hayes, B. A., & Warner, M. L. (1997). Effects of participation in the fifth dimension on far transfer. *Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16*, 371–396.*Carter, C., & Smith, L. (2002). Does the use of learning logic in algebra I make a difference in algebra II? *Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34*, 157–161.*Chute, R., & Miksad, J. (1997). Computer assisted instruction and cognitive development in preschoolers. *Child Study Journal, 27*, 237–253.*Clariana, R. (1996). Differential achievement gains for mathematics computation, concepts, and applications with an integrated learning system. *Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science, 15*, 203–215.*Clark, D. (2004). The effects of using computer-assisted instruction of assist high school geometry students achieve higher levels of success on the Florida Competency Achievement Test. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Union Institute and University, Cincinnati, Ohio.*Connell, M. L. (1998). Technology in constructivist mathematics classrooms. *Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching*, *17*, 311–338.*Feng, S., & Caleo, J. (2000). *Playing computer games versus better learning.* Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Eastern Educational Research Association. Clearwater, FL.*Fischer, E. (1997). The effects of applied technology instruction on mathematics achievement and career interests of urban seventh-grade students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Old Dominion University.*Forde, T. B. (2003). The effects of technology-supported cognitive mathematical instruction on African-American students characterized as at-risk for school failure. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.*Funkhouser, C. (2003). The effects of computer-augmented geometry instruction on student performance and attitudes. *Journal of Research on Technology in Education*, *35*, 163–175.*Iskander, W., & Curtis, S. (2005). Use of colour and interactive animation in learning 3D vectors. *Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching*, *24*, 149–156.*Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2005). Rapid dynamic assessment of expertise to improve the efficiency of adaptive e-learning. *Educational Technology Research & Development*, *53*, 83–93.*Lester. (1996). The effects of the geometer's sketchpad software on achievement of geometric knowledge of high school geometry students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of San Francisco, San Francisco.*Lewis, S. K. (2004). The relationship of full-time laptop computer access to student achievement and student attitudes in middle school. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.*Ling, S. (2004). *Enhancing the learning of conics with technology.* Unpublished master's thesis, California State University Dominguez Hills, Dominguez Hills.*Mac Iver, D. J., Balfanz, R., & Plank, S. B. (1998). The talent development middle school. An elective replacement approach to providing extra help in math—The CATAMA program (computer- and team-assisted mathematics acceleration). Report No. 21. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk.*Martindale, T., Pearson, C., Curda, L. K., & Pilcher, J. (2005). Effects of an online instructional application on reading and mathematics standardized test scores. *Journal of Research on Technology in Education*, *37*, 349–360.*McBride, R. O., & Lewis, G. (1993). Sharing the resources: electronic outreach programs. *Journal for the Education of the Gifted*, *16*, 372–386.*Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Multimedia-supported metaphors for meaning making in mathematics. *Cognition and Instruction*, *17*, 215–248.*Olkun, S. (2003). Comparing computer versus concrete manipulatives in learning 2D geometry. *Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching*, *22*, 43–56.*Page, M. (2002). Technology-enriched classrooms: Effects on students of low socioeconomic status. *Journal of Research on Technology in Education*, *34*, 389–409.*Phillips, C. K. (2001). The effects of an integrated computer program on mathematics and reading improvement in grades three through five. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.*Quinn, D. W., & Quinn, N. W. (2001a). PLATO evaluation series. Grades 1–8, Apache Junction Unified School District 43, Apache Junction, Arizona. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc.*Quinn, D. W., & Quinn, N. W. (2001b). PLATO evaluation series. Jobs for Youth-Boston, Madison Park Technical-Vocational H.S. Boston, Massachusetts. Bloomington, MN: PLATO Learning, Inc.*Schpilberg, B., & Hubschman, B. (2003). *Face-to-face and computer mediated tutoring: A comparative exploration on high school students' math achievement.* Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference. Chicago, IL.*Shyu, H. Y. (2000). Using video-based anchored instruction to enhance learning: Taiwan's experience. *British Journal of Educational Technology*, *31*, 57–69.*Smith, B. (2002). The impact of the utilization of advantage learning systems' technology on students' academic achievement. Unpublished doctorate dissertation, Tennessee State University.*Soeder, K. (2001). *The effect of computer-aided instruction on mathematics achievement.* Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Immaculata College.*Wheeler, J. L., & Regian, J. W. (1999). The use of a cognitive tutoring system in the improvement of the abstract reasoning component of word problem solving. *Computers in Human Behaviour*, *15*, 243–254.*Wittman, T. K., Marcinkiewicz, H. R., & Hamodey-Douglas, S. (1998). *Computer assisted automatization of multiplication facts reduces mathematics anxiety in elementary school children.* Paper presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. St. Louis, MO.*Wodarz, N. (1994). The effects of computer usage on elementary students' attitudes, motivation and achievement in mathematics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Arizona University.*Ysseldyke, J., Betts, J., Thill, T., & Hannigan, E. (2004). Use of an instructional management system to improve mathematics skills for students in Title 1 programs. *Preventing School Failure*, *48*(4), 10–14.*Ysseldyke, J., Spicuzza, R., Kosciolek, S., & Boys, C. (2003). Effects of a learning information system on mathematics achievement and classroom structure. *Journal of Educational Research*, *96*, 163–173.*Ysseldyke, J., Spicuzza, R., Kosciolek, S., Teelucksingh, E., Boys, C., & Lemkuil, A. (2003). Using a curriculum-based instructional management system to enhance math achievement in urban schools. *Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk*, *8*, 247–265.*Ysseldyke, J., Tardrew, S., Betts, J., Thill, T., & Hannigan, E. (2004). Use of an instructional management system to enhance math instruction of gifted and talented students. *Journal for the Education of the Gifted*, *27*, 293–310*Zumwalt, D. (2001). The effectiveness of computer aided instruction in eighth grade pre-algebra classrooms 1061Q6 in Idaho. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Idaho State University, Idaho.