The Role of Mindful Attention in Regard to the Relation Between Negative Affect Reduction Outcome Expectancies and Emotional Vulnerability Among Adult Cigarette Smokers
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- Gonzalez, A., Vujanovic, A.A., Johnson, K.A. et al. Cogn Ther Res (2009) 33: 645. doi:10.1007/s10608-009-9246-x
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The present investigation examined the role of mindful attention in regard to the relation between negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and anxious arousal and anhedonic depression symptoms and difficulties with emotion regulation among 174 (46% women; Mage = 25.32 years, SD = 10.51) daily cigarette smokers. As predicted, there was a significant interaction for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and mindful attention in relation to anxious arousal symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties. Individuals endorsing both higher levels of negative affect reduction outcome expectancies and lower levels of mindful attention reported the greatest anxious arousal symptoms and difficulties with emotion regulation, while those reporting both lower levels of negative affect reduction expectancies and higher levels of mindful attention were associated with lesser anxious arousal symptoms and the least difficulties with emotion regulation. There was no interactive effect for anhedonic depression symptoms. Findings are discussed in relation to better understanding the clinically meaningful interplay between mindful attention and negative affect reduction outcome expectancies among cigarette smokers in terms of affective vulnerability.