Cluster Computing

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 299-311

First online:

Translating Service Level Objectives to lower level policies for multi-tier services

  • Yuan ChenAffiliated withHewlett Packard Labs Email author 
  • , Subu IyerAffiliated withHewlett Packard Labs
  • , Xue LiuAffiliated withSchool of Computer Science, McGill University
  • , Dejan MilojicicAffiliated withHewlett Packard Labs
  • , Akhil SahaiAffiliated withHewlett Packard Labs

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Service providers and their customers agree on certain quality of service guarantees through Service Level Agreements (SLA). An SLA contains one or more Service Level Objectives (SLO)s that describe the agreed-upon quality requirements at the service level. Translating these SLOs into lower-level policies that can then be used for design and monitoring purposes is a difficult problem. Usually domain experts are involved in this translation that often necessitates application of domain knowledge to this problem. In this article, we propose an approach that combines performance modeling with regression analysis to solve this problem. We demonstrate that our approach is practical and that it can be applied to different n-tier services. Our experiments show that for a typical 3-tier e-commerce application in a virtualized environment, the SLA can be met while improving CPU utilization by up to 3 times.


SLA management Performance modeling Multi-tier application Queueing model