Climatic Change

, Volume 123, Issue 3, pp 719-730

First online:

Bio-electricity and land use in the Future Agricultural Resources Model (FARM)

  • Ronald D. SandsAffiliated withEconomic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Email author 
  • , Hannah FörsterAffiliated withÖko-Institut
  • , Carol A. JonesAffiliated withEconomic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • , Katja SchumacherAffiliated withÖko-Institut

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Bio-electricity is an important technology for Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-27) mitigation scenarios, especially with the possibility of negative carbon dioxide emissions when combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). With a strong economic foundation, and broad coverage of economic activity, computable general equilibrium models have proven useful for analysis of alternative climate change policies. However, embedding energy technologies in a general equilibrium model is a challenge, especially for a negative emissions technology with joint products of electricity and carbon dioxide storage. We provide a careful implementation of bio-electricity with CCS in a general equilibrium context, and apply it to selected EMF-27 mitigation scenarios through 2100. Representing bio-electricity and its land requirements requires consideration of competing land uses, including crops, pasture, and forests. Land requirements for bio-electricity start at 200 kilohectares per terawatt-hour declining to approximately 70 kilohectares per terwatt-hour by year 2100 in scenarios with high bioenergy potential.