Ayers, R. S. and Westcot, D. W.: 1976, Water Quality of Agriculture, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Axtell, R. L., Epstein, J. M., Dean, J. S., Gumerman, G. J., Swedlund, A. C., Harburger, J., Chakravarty, S., Hammond, R., Parker, J., and Parker, M.: 2002, ‘Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Benson, L. V., Kashgarian, M., Rye, R. O., Lund, S. P., Paillet, F. L., Smoot, J., Kester, C., Mensing, S., Meko, D., and Lindstrom, S.:2002, ‘Holocene multidecadal and multicentennial droughts affecting Northern California and Nevada’, Quaternary Science Reviews
, 659–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradfield, M.: 1971, ‘The changing pattern of hopi agriculture’, Royal Anthropological Institute Occasional Paper No. 30, London.
Brown, D. P. and Comrie, A. C.: 2002, ‘Sub-regional seasonal precipitation linkages to SOI and PDO in the Southwest United States’, Atmospheric Science Letters
, 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, W. L., Anderson, E. G., and Tuchawena, R. Jr.: 1952, ‘Observations on three varieties of hopi maize’, American Journal of Botany
, 597–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, B. T.: 1983, Simulated Anasazi Storage Behavior using Crop Yields Reconstructed from Tree Rings, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Carlyle, S. W., Parr, R. L., Hayes, G., and O'Rourke, D. H.: 2000, ‘Context of maternal lineages in the Greater Southwest’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology
, 85–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Coltrain, J. B. and Leavitt, S. W.: 2002, ‘Climate and diet in fremont prehistory: Economic variability and abandonment of maize agriculture in the great salt lake basin’, American Antiquity
, 453–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cook, E. R., Woodhouse, C. A, Eakin, C. M., Meko, D. M., and Stahle, D. W.: 2004, ‘Long-Term aridity changes in the Western United States’, Science
, 1015–1018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Cushing, F. H.: 1896, Outlines of Zuni Creation Myths
, Government Printing Office, Washington D. C., p. 462.Google Scholar
Cushing, F. H.: 1920, Zuni Breadstuff, Museum of the American Indian, Indian Notes and Monographs 8, New York.
D'arrigo, R., Villalba, R., and Wiles, G.: 2001, ‘Tree-ring estimates of pacific decadal climate variability’, Climate Dynamics
, 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, J. S.: 1988, ‘A Model of Anasazi Behavioral Adaptation’, in Gumerman, G. J. (ed.), The Anasazi in a Changing Environment
, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 25–44.Google Scholar
Dean, J. S.: 1992, ‘Environmental Factors in the Evolution of the Chacoan Sociopolitical System’, in Doyel, D.E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chacoan System, Maxwell Museum Anthropology Paper No. 5, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 35–43.
Dean, J. S.: 1996, ‘Demography, environment, and subsistence stress’, in Tainter, J., Tainter, B. B. (eds.), Evolving Complexity and Environmental Risk in Prehistoric Southwest
, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. XXIV, Addison-Wesley, New York, pp. 25–56.Google Scholar
Dean, J. S.: 2004, ‘Anthropogenic environmental change in the southwest as viewed from the Colorado Plateau’, in Redman, C. L., James, S. R., Fish, P. R., and Rogers, J. D. (eds.), The Archaeology of Global Change: The Impact of Humans on the Environment
, Smithsonian Books, Washington DC, pp. 191–207.Google Scholar
Dean, J. S. and Funkhouser, G. S.: 2004, ‘Dendroclimatology and fluvial chronology in chaco canyon, Appendix A’, in Force, E. R., Vivian, R. G., Windes, T. C., and Dean, J. S., Relation of “Bonito” Paleo-channels and Base-Level Variations to Anasazi Occupation, Chaco, Canyon, New Mexico, Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series 194, 39–41.
Dean, J. S., Euler, R. C., Gumerman, G. J., Plog, F., Hevly, R. H. and Karlstrom, T. N. V.: 1985, ‘Human behavior, demography, and paleoenvironment on the colorado plateaus’, American Antiquity
, 537–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dean, J. S., Gumerman, G. J., Epstein, J. M., Axtell, Swedlund, A. C., Parker, M. T., and McCarroll, S.: 2000. ‘Understanding anasazi culture change through agent-based modeling’, in Kohler, T. A. and Gumerman, G. J. (eds.), Dynamics in Human and Primate Societies
, Agent-Based Modeling of Social and Spatial Processes
, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 179–205.Google Scholar
Douglass, A. E.: 1929, ’The secret of the Southwest solved by talkative tree rings’, National Geographic Magazine
, 736–770.Google Scholar
Eggan, F.: 1966, The American Indian
: Perspectives for the Study of Social Chance
, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago.Google Scholar
Enfield, D. B., Mestas-Nuñez, A. M., and Trimble, P. J.; 2001, ‘The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the Continental U.S., Geophysical Research Letters
, 2077–2080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forde, C. D.: 1931, ‘Hopi agriculture and land ownership’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
, 357–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, A. P. and Stein J. R.: 1992, ‘Anasazi great house in space, time, and paradigm’, in Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Paper No. 5, Albuquerque, pp. 101–122.
Fritts, H. C., Smith, D. G. and Stokes, M. A.: 1965, ‘The biological model for paleoclimatic interpretation of mesa verde tree-ring series’, in Osborne, D. (ed.), Contributions of the Wetherill Mesa Archaeological Project, Society for American Archaeology Memoir 19, Salt Lake City, pp. 101–121.
Fye, J. K., Stahle, D. W., and Cook, E. R.; 2003, ‘Paleoclimatic analogs to twentieth-century moisture regimes across the United States’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
, 901–909.Google Scholar
Gillespie, W. B.: 1984, ‘The environment of the chaco anasazi’, in Noble, D.G. (ed.), New Light on Chaco Canyon, Exploration, the Annual Bulletin of the School, of American Research, Santa Fe, pp. 37–44.
Graumlich, L.: 1993, ‘A 1000-Year record of temperature and precipitation in the sierra nevada’, Quaternary Research
, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, S. T., Graumlich, L. J., Betancourt, J. L., and Pedersen, G. T.: 2004, ‘A tree-ring based reconstruction of the atlantic multidecadal oscillation since 1567 A.D.’, Geophysical Research Letters
, L12205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grissino-Mayer, H. D.: 1996, ‘A 2129-Year reconstruction of precipitation for Northwest New Mexico, USA’, in Dean, J. S., Meko, D. M. and Swetnam, T. W. (eds.), Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity
, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, pp. 191–204.Google Scholar
Guttman, N. B.: 1998, ‘Comparing the palmer drought index and the standardized precipitation index’, Journal American Water Resources Association
, 113–121.Google Scholar
Hough, W.: 1915, The Hopi Indians
, Cedar Falls, Iowa.Google Scholar
Hunt, A.:1953, Archeological Survey of the La Sal Mountain Area, Utah, University of Utah Archeological Papers No. 14, Salt Lake City.
Johnson, C. D., Kohler, T. A., and Cowan, J.: 2005, ‘Modeling historical ecology, thinking about contemporary systems’, American Anthropologist
, 96–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Judge, W. J.: 1989, ‘Chaco Canyon – San Juan Basin’, in Cordell, L. S., and Gumerman, G. J. (eds.), Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory
, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
Kerr, R. A.: 2000, ‘A North Atlantic climate pacemaker for the centuries’, Science
, 1984–1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kohler, T. A.: 2002, ‘The final 400 years of prehispanic agricultural society in the Mesa Verde region’, Kiva
, 191–204.Google Scholar
Kohler, T. A.: 2004, ‘Prehistoric human impact on upland North American southwestern environments: Evolutionary ecological perspectives’, in Redman, C. L., James, S. R., Fish, P. R., and Rogers, J. D. (eds.), The Archaeology of Global Change: The Impact of Humans on the Environment
, Smithsonian Books, Washington DC, pp. 2241–2242.Google Scholar
Larson, D. O. and Michaelsen, J.: 1990, ‘Impacts of climatic variability and population growth on virgin branch anasazi cultural developments’, American Antiquity
, 227–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larson, D. O., Neff, H., Graybill, D. A., Michaelsen, J. and Ambos, E.: 1996, ‘Risk, climatic variability, and the study of southwestern prehistory: An evolutionary perspective’, American Antiquity
, 217–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lekson, S. H.: 1984, Great Pueblo Architecture of Chaco Canyon
, New Mexico, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, p.299.Google Scholar
Levy, J. E.: 1992, Orayvi Revisited
, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, p. 198Google Scholar
Lindsay, L. W.: 1986, ‘Fremont Fragmentation’, in Condie, C. J. and Fowler, D. D. (eds.), Anthropology of the Desert West, University of Utah Anthropological Papers No. 110, Salt Lake City, pp. 229–252.
Linsley, B. K., Wellington, G. M., and Schrag, D. P.: 2000, ‘Decadal sea surface temperature variability in the subtropical South Pacific from 1726 to 1997 A. D., Science
, 1145–1148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lyneis, M. M.: 1996, ‘Pueblo II-Pueblo III change in southwestern Utah, the Arizona strip, and Southern Nevada’, in Adler, M. A. (ed.), The Prehistoric Pueblo World, AD 1150-1350
, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 11–28.Google Scholar
MacDonald, G. M. and Case, R. A.: 2005, ‘Variations in the Pacific decadal oscillation over the past millennium’, Geophysical Research Letters
, L08703, 4 pp.Google Scholar
Mantua, N. J., Hare, S. R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M. and Francis, R. C.: 1997, ‘A pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
McCabe, G. J., Palecki, M. A. and Betancourt, J. L.: 2004, ‘Pacific and Atlantic ocean influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
, 4136–4141.Google Scholar
Meko, D. M. and Baisan, C. H.: 2001, ‘Pilot study of latewood-width of conifers as an indicator of variability of summer rainfall in the North American monsoon region’, International Journal of Climatology
, 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minnis, P. E.: 1981, Economic and Organizational Responses to Food Stress by Non-Stratified Societies: An Example from Prehistoric New Mexico, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Mitchell, V. L.: 1976, ‘The regionalization of climate in the Western United States’, Journal of Applied Meteorology
, 920–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muenchrath, D. A., Kuratomi, M., Sandor, J. A. and Homburg J. A.: 2002, ‘Observational study of maize production systems of Zuni farmers in semiarid New Mexico’, Journal of Ethnobiology
, 1–33.Google Scholar
Newman, D. E.: 1996, ‘Pollen and macrofossil analysis’, in Talbot, R. K. and Richens, L. D. (eds.), Steinaker Gap: An Early Fremont Farmstead, Museum of Peoples and Cultures Occasional Papers No. 2, Brigham Young University, Provo, pp. 123–148.
Ni F., Cavazos, T., Hughes, M. K., Comrie, A. C., and Funkhouser, G.: 2002, ‘Cool-season precipitation in the southwestern USA since AD 1000: Comparison of linear and nonlinear techniques for reconstruction’, International Journal of Climatology
, 1645–1662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, R. A. and Sander, D. H.: 1988, ‘Corn production’, in Sprague, G. F. and Dudley, J. W. (eds.), Corn and Corn Improvement, 3rd edn., Agronomy Monograph 18, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 639–686.
Petersen, K. L.: 1988, ‘Climate and the Dolores River Anasazi’, University of Utah Anthropological Papers
, 1–151.Google Scholar
Petersen, K. L.: 1994, ‘A warm and wet little climatic optimum and a cold and dry little ice age in the southern rocky mountains, U.S.A.’, Climatic Change
, 243–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson W.J. and Rose, M. R.: 1979, Preliminary Annual and Seasonal Dendroclimatic Reconstruction for the Northwest Plateau, Southwest Colorado, Southwest Mountains, and Northern Mountains, Climatic Regions, A.D. 900–1969, Manuscript on File at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Rose, M. R., Robinson, W. J., and Dean, J. S.: 1982, Dendroclimatic Reconstruction for the Southwestern Colorado Plateau, Manuscript on file at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Rudy, J. R.: 1953, An Archaeological Survey of Western Utah, University of Utah Anthropological Papers No. 12, Salt Lake City.
Salzer, M. W.: 2000, ‘Temperature variability and the Northern Anasazi: Possible implications for regional abandonment’, Kiva
, 295–318.Google Scholar
Schubert, S. D., Suarez, M. J., Pegion, P. J., Koster, R. D., and Bacmeister, J. T.: 2004, ‘On the Cause of the 1930s dust bowl’, Science
, 1855–1859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Shaw, R. H.: 1988, ‘Climate requirement’, in, Sprague, G. F and Dudley, J. W. (eds.), Corn and Corn Improvement, Agronomy Monograph No. 18, Madison, pp. 609–638.
Stahle, D. W., Cook, E. R., Cleaveland, M. K., Therrell, M. D., Meko, D. M., Grissino-Mayer, H. D., Watson, E., and Luckman, B. H.: 2000, ‘Tree-ring data document 16th century megadrought over North America’, EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union
, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephen, A. M.: 1936, Hopi Journal of Alexander M. Stephen, in Parsons, E. C. (ed.), Columbia University Contribution to Anthropology 23
, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Stevenson, M. C.:1904, The Zuni Indians, their Mythology, Esoteric Fraternities, and Ceremonies, 23rd Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Stewart, G. R.: 1940, ‘Conservation in Pueblo agriculture’, Scientific Monthly
Stine, S.: 1994, ‘Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during mediaeval time’, Nature
, 546–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., and Braziunas, T. F.: 1998, ‘High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples’, Radiocarbon
, 1127–1151.Google Scholar
Titiev, M.: 1944, Old Oraibi, a Study of the Hopi Indians of Third Mesa, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology 22, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Van West, C. R.: 1994, Modeling Prehistoric Climatic Variability and Agricultural Production in Southwestern Colorado: A GIS Approach, Reports of Investigations 67, Washington State University Department of Anthropology, Pullman, p. 258.
Varien, M. D., Van West, C. R., and Patterson, G. S.: 2000, ‘Competition, cooperation, and conflict: Agricultural production and community catchments in the central Mesa Verde region’, Kiva
: 45–65.Google Scholar
Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute: 2004, http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/