Effect of Chronic Treatment with Conventional and Organic Purple Grape Juices (Vitis labrusca) on Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet
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- Cardozo, M.G., Medeiros, N., dos Santos Lacerda, D. et al. Cell Mol Neurobiol (2013) 33: 1123. doi:10.1007/s10571-013-9978-8
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Serra Gaucha is described as the most important wine region of Brazil. Regarding cultivars widespread in the Serra Gaucha, about 90 % of the area is occupied by vines of Vitis labrusca that is the most important specie used in grape juice production. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of chronic intake of purple grape juice (organic and conventional) from Bordo variety (V. labrusca) on oxidative stress in different brain regions of rats supplemented with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. A total of 40 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received a standard diet and water, group 2 HFD and water, group 3 HFD and conventional grape juice (CGJ), and group 4 HFD and organic grape juice (OGJ). All groups had free access to food and drink and after 3 months of treatment the rats were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum isolated and homogenized on ice for oxidative stress analysis. We observed that the consumption of calories in HFD and control groups, were higher than the groups supplemented with HFD and grape juices and that HFD diet group gain more weight than the other animals. Our results also demonstrated that HDF enhanced lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein damage (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, reduced the non-enzymatic antioxidants defenses (sulfhydryl) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, reduced catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in all brain tissues and enhanced nitric oxide production in all cerebral tissues. CGJ and OGJ were able to ameliorate these oxidative alterations, being OGJ more effective in this protection. Therefore, grape juices could be useful in the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative damage.