Effectiveness of a Culturally Adapted Strengthening Families Program 12–16 Years for High-Risk Irish Families
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Evidence-based programs (EBPs) targeting effective family skills are the most cost effective for improving adolescent behavioural health. Cochrane Reviews have found the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) to be the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Standardized cultural adaptation processes resulted in successful outcomes in several countries.
To promote wide-scale implementation and positive outcomes in Ireland, a unique model of inter-agency collaboration was developed plus guidelines for cultural adaptation with fidelity.
250 high-risk youth and families were recruited to complete SFP and its parent questionnaire. A quasi-experimental 2 group pre- and post-test design was employed where the norms were the comparison group. A 2 × 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) generated the outcome tables including p values and Cohen’s d effect sizes. Evaluation feedback was used to improve outcomes the next year.
All 21 measured outcomes had statistically significant positive results. Larger effect sizes were found for the Irish families than the USA families (d = 0.57 vs. 0.48 for youth outcomes, d = 0.73 vs. 0.65 for parenting and d = 0.76 vs. 0.70 for family outcomes). Overt and covert aggression, criminality and depression decreased more in Irish youth, but the USA youth improved more in social skills.
This study suggests that SFP 12–16 is quite effective in reducing behavioural health problems in Irish adolescents, improving family relationships and reducing substance abuse. Additionally, the Irish interagency collaboration model is a viable solution to recruitment, retention and staffing in rural communities where finding five skilled professionals to implement SFP can be difficult.
- Achenbach, TM, Edelbrock, C (1988) Child behavior checklist (CBCL). Center for Children, Youth, and Families, University of VT, Burlington, VT
- Alcohol and Drug Research Unit. (2010). Treated problem drug use in Ireland: Figures for 2008 from the national drug treatment reporting system. Dublin: Health Research Board. Retrieved from httt://www.drugsandalcohol.i.e./12771. Accessed 26 Aug 2010.
- Andrews, DW, Solomon, LH, Dishion, TJ (1995) The adolescent transition program: A school-based program for high-risk teens and their parents. Education and Treatment of Children 18: pp. 478-498
- Aos, S., Lieb, R., Mayfield, J., Miller, M., & Pennucci, A. (2004). Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth. Washington State Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/rptfiles/04-07-3901.pdf. Accessed 05 Sep 2011.
- Ary, DV, Tildesley, E, Hops, H, Andres, J (1993) The influence of parent, sibling, and peer modelling and attitudes on adolescent use of alcohol. The International Journal of the Addictions 28: pp. 853-880
- Bandura, A (1989) Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist 44: pp. 1175-1184 CrossRef
- Biglan, A, Taylor, T (2000) Increasing use of science to improve child rearing. Journal of Primary Prevention 21: pp. 207-226 CrossRef
- Butler, S (2007) Rabbitte revisited: The first report of the ministerial task force on measures to reduce demand for drugs—ten years on. Administration 55: pp. 125-144
- Campbell, DT, Stanley, JC (1967) Experimental and Quasi-experimental designs for research. Rand McNally and Company, Chicago
- Castro, FG, Barrera, M, Holleran Steiker, LK (2010) Issues and challenges in the design of culturally adapted evidence-based interventions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 6: pp. 213-239 CrossRef
- National survey of American attitudes on substance abuse XV: Teens and parents. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, New York
- Cuijpers, P (2003) Three decades of drug prevention research. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy 10: pp. 7-20 CrossRef
- Cuijpers, P (2005) Prevention programs for children of problem drinkers. A review. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy 12: pp. 465-475 CrossRef
- DeMarsh, J. P., & Kumpfer, K. L. (1985). Family-oriented interventions for the pevention of chemical dependency in children and adolescents. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society: Advances in Theory and Applied Research, 18(122), 117–151.
- Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. (2010). Report of the steering group on the mid-term review of the National Drugs Strategy 2001–2008. Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved from http://www.pobail.i.e./en/OfficeoftheMinisterforDrugs/ReportoftheWorkingGrouponDrugsRehabilitation/file,8392,en.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2011.
- Doyle, P., Molcho, M., & Nic Gabhainn, S. (2009). HBSC Ireland: Age related patterns in alcohol consumption and cannabis use among Irish children between 1998–2006. Short report. Galway: Health Promotion Research Center, National University of Ireland. Retrieved from http://www.nuigalway.i.e./hbsc/shortreports.html. Accessed 11 Sep 2011.
- The state of the drugs problem in Europe. Publication Office of the European Union, Annual Report. Luxembourg
- Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents: a review of the theory and evidence base of indicated prevention. Publication Office of the European Union, Annual Report. Luxembourg
- Falicov, C. J. (2009). Commentary: On the wisdom and challenges of culturally attuned treatments for Latinos. Family Process, 48, 292–309.
- Foxcroft, DR (2006) Alcohol misuse prevention in young people: A rapid review of recent evidence. WHO Technical Report, Oxford Brooks University, Oxford, UK
- Foxcroft, DR, Ireland, D, Lister-Sharp, DJ, Lowe, G, Breen, R (2003) Longer-term primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people: A systematic review. Addiction 98: pp. 397-411 CrossRef
- Friese, B., & Grube, J. W. (2010). Youth drinking rates and problems: A comparison of European Countries and the United States. U.S. Department of justice. Retrieved from http://resources.prev.org/underagedrinking_resources.html. Accessed 16 Apr 2010.
- Gresham, FM, Elliott, SN (1990) Social skills rating system. American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, MN
- Hawkins, D, Catalano, R (2000) Communities that care. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA
- Hibbel, B., Guttormsson, U., Ahlström, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnson, T., Kokkevi, A., et al. (2009). The 2007 ESPAD report: Substance use among students in 35 European countries. Stockholm: Sweden, The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN).
- Holleran Steiker, LK, Castro, FG, Kumpfer, KL, Marsiglia, FF, Coard, S, Hopson, LM (2008) A dialogue regarding cultural adaptation of interventions. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions 8: pp. 154-162 CrossRef
- Johnston, LD, O’Malley, PM, Bachman, JG, Schulenberg, JE (2010) Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2009. Vol I: Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 10–7584). National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD
- Kellam, S (1972) Parent observation of children’s activities (POCA). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
- Kiely, E, Egan, E (2000) Drug education: A social and evaluative study. National University of Ireland Cork, Litho Press
- Kumpfer, K. L. (1984). Strengthening Families Program Parenting Scale. SLC, UT: College of Social Work, University of Utah.
- Kumpfer, KL Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. In: Glantz, MD, Johnson, JL eds. (1999) Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations. Kluwer, NY
- Kumpfer, KL, Alvarado, R (2003) Family strengthening approaches for the prevention of youth problem behaviors. American Psychologist 58: pp. 6-7 CrossRef
- Kumpfer, KL, Alvarado, R, Smith, P, Bellamy, N (2002) Cultural sensitivity in universal family-based prevention interventions. Prevention Science 3: pp. 241-244 CrossRef
- Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Tait, C., & Turner, C. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based family and children’s skills training for substance abuse prevention among 6–8 year old rural children. Psychology of Addictive Behavior (Special Issue). In R. Tarter, P. Tolan, & S. Sambrano (Eds.).
- Kumpfer, KL, Alvarado, R, Whiteside, HO (2003) Family-based interventions for substance abuse prevention. Substance Use and Misuse 38: pp. 1759-1789 CrossRef
- Kumpfer, K. L., & DeMarsh, J. P. (1985). Family environmental and genetic influences on children’s future chemical dependency. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society: Advances in Theory and Applied Research, 18(1–2), 49–91.
- Kumpfer, KL, DeMarsh, JP, Child, W (1989) Strengthening families program: Children’s skill training curriculum manual, parent training manual, and family skills training manual. Social Research Institute, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Utah, (Prevention Services to Children of Substance-abusing Parents). Utah
- Kumpfer, K. L., & Dunst, C. (1997). The Family Strengths and Resilience Scale. Denver, CO: American Humane Society.
- Kumpfer, KL, Fenollar, J, Xie, J, Bluth Dellinger, B Resilience framework: Resilience and resourcefulness in the face of chronic family adversity. In: Gow, K, Celinski, M eds. (2011) Continuity versus creative response to challenge: The primacy of resilience and resourcefulness in life and therapy. Nova Science Publications, Hauppauge, NY, pp. 259-272
- Kumpfer, KL, Greene, JA, Allen, KC, Miceli, F (2010) Effectiveness outcomes of four age versions of the Strengthening Families Program in statewide field sites. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 14: pp. 211-229 CrossRef
- Kumpfer, KL, Johnson, JL (2007) Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents. Adicciones 19: pp. 13-25
- Kumpfer, KL, Pinyuchon, M, Melo, A, Whiteside, HO (2008) Cultural adaptation process for international dissemination of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP). Evaluation and Health Professions 33: pp. 226-239 CrossRef
- Kumpfer, KL, Smith, P, Franklin Summerhays, J (2008) A wake-up call to the prevention field: Are prevention programs for substance use effective for girls?. Substance Use and Misuse 43: pp. 978-1001 CrossRef
- Midford, R (2009) Drug prevention programs for young people: Where have we been and where should we be going?. Addiction 105: pp. 1688-1695 CrossRef
- Miller, T. A., & Hendrie, D. (2008). Substance abuse prevention: Dollars and cents: A cost-benefit analysis. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), SAMHSA. DHHS Pub.No. 07-4298, Rockville, MD.
- Moos, RH (1974) Family environment scale. Consulting Psychologist Press, Inc, Palo Alto, CA
- Nation, M, Crusto, C, Wandersman, A, Kumpfer, KL, Seybolt, D, Morrissey-Kane, E, Davino, K (2003) What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist 58: pp. 449-456 CrossRef
- ONDCP. (2010). Newsletter of the office of national drug control policy. ONDCP Update, 1(1), 3.
- Onrust, S., & Bool, M. (2006). Evaluation of the Cursus Gezin aan Bod: The Dutch adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP 12-16). Utrecht, Netherlands: Trimbos Institute.
- Orte, C., March, M., Ballester, L., & Touza, C. (2007). Results of a family competence program for Spanish drug abusing parents (2005–2006). Poster presented at the 15th annual conference of the society for prevention research, Washington, DC.
- Petrie, J, Bunn, F, Byrne, G (2007) Parenting programs for preventing tobacco, alcohol or drug misuse in children: A systematic review. Health Education Research 22: pp. 177-191 CrossRef
- Pratt, C, Mcguigan, W, Katzev, A (2000) Measuring program outcomes: Using retrospective pretest methodology. American Journal of Evaluation 21: pp. 341-349
- Rhodes, JE, Jason, LA (1987) The retrospective pretest: An alternative approach in evaluating drug prevention programs. Journal of Drug Education 17: pp. 345-356 CrossRef
- Skärstrand, E, Larsson, J, Andreasson, S (2008) Cultural adaptation of the Strengthening Families Programme to a Swedish Setting. Health Education 108: pp. 287-300 CrossRef
- Spoth, RL, Guyll, M, Day, S (2002) Universal family-focused interventions in alcohol-use disorder prevention: Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of two interventions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 63: pp. 219-228
- Spoth, RL, Redmond, C Illustrating a framework for rural prevention research: Project family studies of rural family participation and outcomes. In: Peters, R, McMahon, RJ eds. (1996) Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency. Sage publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 299-368
- Spoth, RL, Redmond, C, Shin, C (2001) Randomized trial of brief family interventions for general populations: Adolescent substance abuse outcomes 4 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 69: pp. 627-642 CrossRef
- Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Mason, A., Kosterman, R., Haggerty, K., & Hawkins, D. (2005). Ten-year follow-up assessment of brief, family-focused intervention effects on lifetime conduct and antisocial personality disorders: Preliminary results. Poster presented at 13th annual Society for Prevention Research conference, Washington, DC.
- Stice, E, Shaw, H, Marti, CN (2006) A meta-analytic review of obesity prevention programs for children and adolescents: The skinny on interventions that work. Psychological Bulletin 132: pp. 667-691 CrossRef
- Stolle, M, Sack, PM, Stappenbeck, J, Thomasius, R (2010) Familienbasierte prävention bei kindern und jugendlichen. Das Strengthening Families Program. Sucht 56: pp. 56-60
- Tobler, NS, Kumpfer, KL (2001) Meta-analyses of family approaches to substance abuse prevention. Report prepared for the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), Rockville, MD
- Tobler, NS, Stratton, HH (1997) Effectiveness of school-based prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. Journal of Primary Prevention 18: pp. 71-128 CrossRef
- United Nations Office on Drugs Crime. (2009). Guide to implementing family skills training programmes for drug prevention. United Nations, New York.
- Wright, D. (2006). Evaluation of an online public health education program for health department employees. Doctoral Dissertation Abstracts. Salt Lake City, Utah: Department of Health Promotion and Education, University of Utah.
- Effectiveness of a Culturally Adapted Strengthening Families Program 12–16 Years for High-Risk Irish Families
Child & Youth Care Forum
Volume 41, Issue 2 , pp 173-195
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Family skills training
- Risk behaviours
- Prevention of delinquency and substance abuse
- Cultural adaptation