Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 153-173

First online:

Developing an Additive Risk Model for Predicting Academic Index: School Factors and Academic Achievement

  • Robert LucioAffiliated withDepartment of Child and Family Studies, University of South Florida Email author 
  • , Lisa Rapp-PaglicciAffiliated withSchool of Social Work, University of South Florida
  • , William RoweAffiliated withSchool of Social Work, University of South Florida

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The impact of school factors on academic achievement has become an important focus for identifying, preventing, and intervening with youth at-risk for academic failure. This study was designed to develop and test a more comprehensive school factor risk index. Specifically, the relationship between cumulative grade point average (GPA) and an additive risk index (ARI) were tested and an analysis of the index is presented. School factors that been shown in previous research to impact academic achievement were tested. Those factors were included in the final risk index if they met the criteria of (1) having a correlation with GPA, (2) containing a difference in outcomes between the risk and non-risk groups, and (3) making a unique contribution to the overall index. The risk and protective factors included in the creation of the ARI were attendance, academic self-efficacy, academic expectations, grade retention, music instruction, and school behaviors. The interplay between risk and protective factors was shown to have a significant relationship with GPA.


Additive risk index Academic achievement Social work Cumulative grade point average School factors