Original paper

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 503-510

Coffee consumption and reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: findings from the Singapore Chinese Health Study

  • Shane JohnsonAffiliated withThe Masonic Cancer Center, MMC 806, University of MinnesotaDivision of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota
  • , Woon-Puay KohAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
  • , Renwei WangAffiliated withThe Masonic Cancer Center, MMC 806, University of Minnesota
  • , Sugantha GovindarajanAffiliated withDepartment of Clinical Pathology, Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
  • , Mimi C. YuAffiliated withThe Masonic Cancer Center, MMC 806, University of Minnesota
  • , Jian-Min YuanAffiliated withThe Masonic Cancer Center, MMC 806, University of MinnesotaDivision of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota Email author 

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Abstract

Background

Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced markers of hepatic cell damage, reduced risk of chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis across a variety of populations. Data on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in high-risk populations, are sparse.

Methods

This study examines the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption, and the risk of developing HCC within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women, a relatively high-risk population for HCC. Baseline data on coffee consumption and other dietary and lifestyle factors were collected through in-person interviews at enrollment between 1993 and 1998.

Results

As of 31 December 2006, 362 cohort participants had developed HCC. High levels of coffee or caffeine consumption were associated with reduced risk of HCC (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, individuals who consumed three or more cups of coffee per day experienced a statistically significant 44% reduction in risk of HCC (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.31–1.00, p = .049) after adjustment for potential confounders and tea consumption.

Conclusion

These data suggest that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of developing HCC in Chinese in Singapore.

Keywords

Coffee Caffeine HCC Hepatocellular Liver cancer GGT