Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 697–707

Parkinson’s disease and cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors

    • Channing Laboratory, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
  • Jane A. Driver
    • Division of Aging, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital
    • Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical CenterBoston VA Healthcare System
  • Eva S. Schernhammer
    • Channing Laboratory, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School
    • Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public Health
    • LBI-ACR-CTO & ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10552-009-9497-6

Cite this article as:
Bajaj, A., Driver, J.A. & Schernhammer, E.S. Cancer Causes Control (2010) 21: 697. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9497-6

Abstract

Objective

To appraise the existing literature on cancer risk among patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), determine the overall cancer risk ratio among patients with PD, explore reasons for variations in study results, and assess the potential for publication bias.

Methods

Studies reporting cancer risk in patients with PD were identified by searching electronic databases through 18 November 2009 using the terms PARKINSON DISEASE, NEOPLASM, and CANCER. Reviewers individually performed data extraction and scored each study using a quality assessment instrument. Cancer risk in all patients with PD was calculated overall, and after excluding melanoma and other skin cancers. We tested for heterogeneity and publication bias, and stratified for gender, smoking-related versus non-smoking-related cancers, and study quality. We pooled effect sizes using fixed-effects and random-effects models.

Results

We included 29 studies in the overall analysis for a total of 107,598 patients with PD. Compared to controls, the aggregate risk for cancer in patients with PD was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.83), and after excluding skin tumors, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62–0.78). These risks varied by gender (males, RR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.57–0.88; females, RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68–0.98). After strictly excluding skin tumors, both smoking-related (RR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.58–0.65) and non-smoking-related cancer rates (RR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.65–0.89) were significantly lower among patients with PD .

Conclusions

Studies on cancer risk among patients with PD collectively show significantly reduced cancer risk ratios. Further research to explain the biological mechanisms, particularly for the association with non-smoking-related cancers, appears warranted.

Keywords

Neurodegenerative diseasesNeoplasmMeta-analysis

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010