, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 539-545

Circadian Disruption, Shift Work and the Risk of Cancer: A Summary of the Evidence and Studies in Seattle

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Abstract

There is increasing interest in the possibility that disruption of normal circadian rhythm may increase the risk of developing cancer. Persons who engage in nightshift work may exhibit altered nighttime melatonin levels and reproductive hormone profiles that could increase the risk of hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies are now beginning to emerge suggesting that women who work at night, and who experience sleep deprivation, circadian disruption, and exposure to light-at-night are at an increased risk of breast cancer, and possibly colorectal cancer as well. Several studies have been conducted in Seattle recently to investigate the effects of factors that can disrupt circadian rhythm and alter normal nocturnal production of melatonin and reproductive hormones of relevance to breast cancer etiology. Studies completed to date have found: (1) an increased risk of breast cancer associated with indicators of exposure to light-at-night and night shift work; and (2) decreased nocturnal urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin associated with exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields in the bedroom the same night, and a number of other factors including hours of daylight, season, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Recently completed is an experimental crossover study designed to investigate whether exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field under controlled conditions in the home sleeping environment is associated with a decrease in nocturnal urinary concentration of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, and an increase in the urinary concentration of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and estradiol in a sample of healthy women of reproductive age. Presently underway is a study to determine whether working at night is associated with decreased levels of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, and increased urinary concentrations of the reproductive hormones listed above in a sample of healthy women of reproductive age, and to elucidate characteristics of sleep among night shift workers that are related to the hormone patterns identified. A proposal is under review to extend these studies to a sample of healthy men to investigate whether working at night is associated with decreased levels of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, and increased concentrations of urinary cortisol and cortisone, urinary levels of a number of androgen metabolites, and serum concentrations of a number of reproductive hormones. Secondarily, the proposed study will elucidate characteristics of sleep among night shift workers that are related to the hormone patterns identified, as well as investigate whether polymorphisms of the genes thought to regulate the human circadian clock are associated with the ability to adapt to night shift work. It is anticipated that collectively these studies will enhance our understanding of the role of circadian disruption in the etiology of cancer.