Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 105, Issue 4, pp 415-428

First online:

Ethical Cultures in Large Business Organizations in Brazil, Russia, India, and China

  • Alexandre ArdichviliAffiliated withDepartment of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development, University of Minnesota Email author 
  • , Douglas JondleAffiliated withCenter for Ethics Business Cultures, Opus College of Business, University of St. Thomas
  • , Brenda KowskeAffiliated withKenexa Research Institute
  • , Edgard CornachioneAffiliated withUniversity of Sao Paulo
  • , Jessica LiAffiliated withUniversity of North Texas
  • , Thomas ThakadipuramAffiliated withSt. Claret College

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This study focuses on comparison of perceptions of ethical business cultures in large business organizations from four largest emerging economies, commonly referred to as the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), and from the US. The data were collected from more than 13,000 managers and employees of business organizations in five countries. The study found significant differences among BRIC countries, with respondents from India and Brazil providing more favorable assessments of ethical cultures of their organizations than respondents from China and Russia. Overall, highest mean scores were provided by respondents from India, the US, and Brazil. There were significant similarities in ratings between the US and Brazil.


Ethical business culture Business ethics BRICs Brazil Russia India China USA