Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 1–31

A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce

  • David A. Ralston
  • Carolyn P. Egri
  • Emmanuelle Reynaud
  • Narasimhan Srinivasan
  • Olivier Furrer
  • David Brock
  • Ruth Alas
  • Florian Wangenheim
  • Fidel León Darder
  • Christine Kuo
  • Vojko Potocan
  • Audra I. Mockaitis
  • Erna Szabo
  • Jaime Ruiz Gutiérrez
  • Andre Pekerti
  • Arif Butt
  • Ian Palmer
  • Irina Naoumova
  • Tomasz Lenartowicz
  • Arunas Starkus
  • Vu Thanh Hung
  • Tevfik Dalgic
  • Mario Molteni
  • María Teresa de la Garza Carranza
  • Isabelle Maignan
  • Francisco B. Castro
  • Yong-lin Moon
  • Jane Terpstra-Tong
  • Marina Dabic
  • Yongjuan Li
  • Wade Danis
  • Maria Kangasniemi
  • Mahfooz Ansari
  • Liesl Riddle
  • Laurie Milton
  • Philip Hallinger
  • Detelin Elenkov
  • Ilya Girson
  • Modesta Gelbuda
  • Prem Ramburuth
  • Tania Casado
  • Ana Maria Rossi
  • Malika Richards
  • Cheryl Van Deusen
  • Ping-Ping Fu
  • Paulina Man Kei Wan
  • Moureen Tang
  • Chay-Hoon Lee
  • Ho-Beng Chia
  • Yongquin Fan
  • Alan Wallace
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0835-8

Cite this article as:
Ralston, D.A., Egri, C.P., Reynaud, E. et al. J Bus Ethics (2011) 104: 1. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0835-8

Abstract

This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research.

Keywords

Cultural valuesInternational managementSchwartz Values Survey

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Ralston
    • 1
  • Carolyn P. Egri
    • 2
  • Emmanuelle Reynaud
    • 3
  • Narasimhan Srinivasan
    • 4
  • Olivier Furrer
    • 5
  • David Brock
    • 6
  • Ruth Alas
    • 7
  • Florian Wangenheim
    • 8
  • Fidel León Darder
    • 9
  • Christine Kuo
    • 10
  • Vojko Potocan
    • 11
  • Audra I. Mockaitis
    • 12
  • Erna Szabo
    • 13
  • Jaime Ruiz Gutiérrez
    • 14
  • Andre Pekerti
    • 15
  • Arif Butt
    • 16
  • Ian Palmer
    • 17
  • Irina Naoumova
    • 18
  • Tomasz Lenartowicz
    • 19
  • Arunas Starkus
    • 20
  • Vu Thanh Hung
    • 21
  • Tevfik Dalgic
    • 22
  • Mario Molteni
    • 23
  • María Teresa de la Garza Carranza
    • 24
  • Isabelle Maignan
    • 25
  • Francisco B. Castro
    • 26
  • Yong-lin Moon
    • 27
  • Jane Terpstra-Tong
    • 28
  • Marina Dabic
    • 29
  • Yongjuan Li
    • 30
  • Wade Danis
    • 31
  • Maria Kangasniemi
    • 32
  • Mahfooz Ansari
    • 33
  • Liesl Riddle
    • 34
  • Laurie Milton
    • 35
  • Philip Hallinger
    • 36
  • Detelin Elenkov
    • 37
  • Ilya Girson
    • 38
  • Modesta Gelbuda
    • 39
  • Prem Ramburuth
    • 40
  • Tania Casado
    • 41
  • Ana Maria Rossi
    • 42
  • Malika Richards
    • 43
  • Cheryl Van Deusen
    • 44
  • Ping-Ping Fu
    • 45
  • Paulina Man Kei Wan
    • 46
  • Moureen Tang
    • 46
  • Chay-Hoon Lee
    • 47
  • Ho-Beng Chia
    • 48
  • Yongquin Fan
    • 49
  • Alan Wallace
    • 50
  1. 1.University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.Simon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  3. 3.IAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceAix en Provence Cedex 2France
  4. 4.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  5. 5.Radboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Ben-Gurion UniversityBeershebaIsrael
  7. 7.Estonia Business SchoolTallinnEstonia
  8. 8.Technische Universitaet MuenchenMunichGermany
  9. 9.University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  10. 10.Yuan-Ze UniversityJhongli CityTaiwan
  11. 11.University of MariborMariborSlovenia
  12. 12.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  13. 13.Johannes Kepler UniversitätLinzAustria
  14. 14.Universidad de los AndesBogotáColombia
  15. 15.University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  16. 16.Lahore University of Management SciencesLahorePakistan
  17. 17.University of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  18. 18.University of HartfordWest HartfordUSA
  19. 19.Florida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA
  20. 20.CIBER-VilniusVilniusLithuania
  21. 21.National Economics UniversityHanoiVietnam
  22. 22.University of DallasIrvingUSA
  23. 23.Catholic University of MilanMilanItaly
  24. 24.Instituto Tecnológico de CelayaCelayaMexico
  25. 25.VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands
  26. 26.CEMPRE-Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  27. 27.Seoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  28. 28.Monash UniversityPetaling JayaMalaysia
  29. 29.University of ZagrebCity of ZagrebCroatia
  30. 30.Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina
  31. 31.Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  32. 32.University of KuopioKuopioFinland
  33. 33.University of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada
  34. 34.George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  35. 35.University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  36. 36.Hong Kong Institute of EducationHong KongChina
  37. 37.University of TennesseeNashvilleUSA
  38. 38.University of WestminsterWestminsterUK
  39. 39.Aalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  40. 40.University of New South WalesKensingtonAustralia
  41. 41.University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  42. 42.Clinica De Stress E BiofeedbackPorto AlegreBrazil
  43. 43.Pennsylvania State University—BerksReadingUSA
  44. 44.University of North FloridaJacksonvilleUSA
  45. 45.Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  46. 46.Lingnan UniversityLingnanHong Kong
  47. 47.Keppel Offshore and MarineSingaporeSingapore
  48. 48.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  49. 49.Nanjing Technical UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  50. 50.Grand JunctionUSA