Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 1-31

First online:

A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce

  • David A. RalstonAffiliated withUniversity of Oklahoma Email author 
  • , Carolyn P. EgriAffiliated withSimon Fraser University
  • , Emmanuelle ReynaudAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-Provence
  • , Narasimhan SrinivasanAffiliated withUniversity of Connecticut
  • , Olivier FurrerAffiliated withRadboud University Nijmegen
  • , David BrockAffiliated withBen-Gurion University
  • , Ruth AlasAffiliated withEstonia Business School
  • , Florian WangenheimAffiliated withTechnische Universitaet Muenchen
  • , Fidel León DarderAffiliated withUniversity of Valencia
    • , Christine KuoAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaYuan-Ze University
    • , Vojko PotocanAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaUniversity of Maribor
    • , Audra I. MockaitisAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaVictoria University of Wellington
    • , Erna SzaboAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaJohannes Kepler Universität
    • , Jaime Ruiz GutiérrezAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaUniversidad de los Andes
    • , Andre PekertiAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaUniversity of Auckland
    • , Arif ButtAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaLahore University of Management Sciences
    • , Ian PalmerAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaUniversity of Technology Sydney
    • , Irina NaoumovaAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaUniversity of Hartford
    • , Tomasz LenartowiczAffiliated withUniversity of OklahomaFlorida Atlantic University
    • , Arunas StarkusAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityCIBER-Vilnius
    • , Vu Thanh HungAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityNational Economics University
    • , Tevfik DalgicAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityUniversity of Dallas
    • , Mario MolteniAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityCatholic University of Milan
    • , María Teresa de la Garza CarranzaAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityInstituto Tecnológico de Celaya
    • , Isabelle MaignanAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityVU University Amsterdam
    • , Francisco B. CastroAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityCEMPRE-Universidade do Porto
    • , Yong-lin MoonAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversitySeoul National University
    • , Jane Terpstra-TongAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityMonash University
    • , Marina DabicAffiliated withSimon Fraser UniversityUniversity of Zagreb
    • , Yongjuan LiAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceChinese Academy of Science
    • , Wade DanisAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceGeorgia State University
    • , Maria KangasniemiAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceUniversity of Kuopio
    • , Mahfooz AnsariAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceUniversity of Lethbridge
    • , Liesl RiddleAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceGeorge Washington University
    • , Laurie MiltonAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceUniversity of Calgary
    • , Philip HallingerAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceHong Kong Institute of Education
    • , Detelin ElenkovAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceUniversity of Tennessee
    • , Ilya GirsonAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceUniversity of Westminster
    • , Modesta GelbudaAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-ProvenceAalborg University
    • , Prem RamburuthAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutUniversity of New South Wales
    • , Tania CasadoAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutUniversity of São Paulo
    • , Ana Maria RossiAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutClinica De Stress E Biofeedback
    • , Malika RichardsAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutPennsylvania State University—Berks
    • , Cheryl Van DeusenAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutUniversity of North Florida
    • , Ping-Ping FuAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutChinese University of Hong Kong
    • , Paulina Man Kei WanAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutLingnan University
    • , Moureen TangAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutLingnan University
    • , Chay-Hoon LeeAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutKeppel Offshore and Marine
    • , Ho-Beng ChiaAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutNational University of Singapore
    • , Yongquin FanAffiliated withUniversity of ConnecticutNanjing Technical University
    • , Alan WallaceAffiliated withRadboud University Nijmegen

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This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research.


Cultural values International management Schwartz Values Survey