Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 1-31

First online:

A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce

  • David A. RalstonAffiliated withUniversity of Oklahoma Email author 
  • , Carolyn P. EgriAffiliated withSimon Fraser University
  • , Emmanuelle ReynaudAffiliated withIAE d’Aix-en-Provence
  • , Narasimhan SrinivasanAffiliated withUniversity of Connecticut
  • , Olivier FurrerAffiliated withRadboud University Nijmegen
  • , David BrockAffiliated withBen-Gurion University
  • , Ruth AlasAffiliated withEstonia Business School
  • , Florian WangenheimAffiliated withTechnische Universitaet Muenchen
  • , Fidel León DarderAffiliated withUniversity of Valencia
    • , Christine KuoAffiliated withYuan-Ze University
    • , Vojko PotocanAffiliated withUniversity of Maribor
    • , Audra I. MockaitisAffiliated withVictoria University of Wellington
    • , Erna SzaboAffiliated withJohannes Kepler Universität
    • , Jaime Ruiz GutiérrezAffiliated withUniversidad de los Andes
    • , Andre PekertiAffiliated withUniversity of Auckland
    • , Arif ButtAffiliated withLahore University of Management Sciences
    • , Ian PalmerAffiliated withUniversity of Technology Sydney
    • , Irina NaoumovaAffiliated withUniversity of Hartford
    • , Tomasz LenartowiczAffiliated withFlorida Atlantic University
    • , Arunas StarkusAffiliated withCIBER-Vilnius
    • , Vu Thanh HungAffiliated withNational Economics University
    • , Tevfik DalgicAffiliated withUniversity of Dallas
    • , Mario MolteniAffiliated withCatholic University of Milan
    • , María Teresa de la Garza CarranzaAffiliated withInstituto Tecnológico de Celaya
    • , Isabelle MaignanAffiliated withVU University Amsterdam
    • , Francisco B. CastroAffiliated withCEMPRE-Universidade do Porto
    • , Yong-lin MoonAffiliated withSeoul National University
    • , Jane Terpstra-TongAffiliated withMonash University
    • , Marina DabicAffiliated withUniversity of Zagreb
    • , Yongjuan LiAffiliated withChinese Academy of Science
    • , Wade DanisAffiliated withGeorgia State University
    • , Maria KangasniemiAffiliated withUniversity of Kuopio
    • , Mahfooz AnsariAffiliated withUniversity of Lethbridge
    • , Liesl RiddleAffiliated withGeorge Washington University
    • , Laurie MiltonAffiliated withUniversity of Calgary
    • , Philip HallingerAffiliated withHong Kong Institute of Education
    • , Detelin ElenkovAffiliated withUniversity of Tennessee
    • , Ilya GirsonAffiliated withUniversity of Westminster
    • , Modesta GelbudaAffiliated withAalborg University
    • , Prem RamburuthAffiliated withUniversity of New South Wales
    • , Tania CasadoAffiliated withUniversity of São Paulo
    • , Ana Maria RossiAffiliated withClinica De Stress E Biofeedback
    • , Malika RichardsAffiliated withPennsylvania State University—Berks
    • , Cheryl Van DeusenAffiliated withUniversity of North Florida
    • , Ping-Ping FuAffiliated withChinese University of Hong Kong
    • , Paulina Man Kei WanAffiliated withLingnan University
    • , Moureen TangAffiliated withLingnan University
    • , Chay-Hoon LeeAffiliated withKeppel Offshore and Marine
    • , Ho-Beng ChiaAffiliated withNational University of Singapore
    • , Yongquin FanAffiliated withNanjing Technical University
    • , Alan WallaceAffiliated with

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This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research.


Cultural values International management Schwartz Values Survey