Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 104, Issue 1, pp 1–31

A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce


    • University of Oklahoma
  • Carolyn P. Egri
    • Simon Fraser University
  • Emmanuelle Reynaud
    • IAE d’Aix-en-Provence
  • Narasimhan Srinivasan
    • University of Connecticut
  • Olivier Furrer
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
  • David Brock
    • Ben-Gurion University
  • Ruth Alas
    • Estonia Business School
  • Florian Wangenheim
    • Technische Universitaet Muenchen
  • Fidel León Darder
    • University of Valencia
  • Christine Kuo
    • Yuan-Ze University
  • Vojko Potocan
    • University of Maribor
  • Audra I. Mockaitis
    • Victoria University of Wellington
  • Erna Szabo
    • Johannes Kepler Universität
  • Jaime Ruiz Gutiérrez
    • Universidad de los Andes
  • Andre Pekerti
    • University of Auckland
  • Arif Butt
    • Lahore University of Management Sciences
  • Ian Palmer
    • University of Technology Sydney
  • Irina Naoumova
    • University of Hartford
  • Tomasz Lenartowicz
    • Florida Atlantic University
  • Arunas Starkus
    • CIBER-Vilnius
  • Vu Thanh Hung
    • National Economics University
  • Tevfik Dalgic
    • University of Dallas
  • Mario Molteni
    • Catholic University of Milan
  • María Teresa de la Garza Carranza
    • Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya
  • Isabelle Maignan
    • VU University Amsterdam
  • Francisco B. Castro
    • CEMPRE-Universidade do Porto
  • Yong-lin Moon
    • Seoul National University
  • Jane Terpstra-Tong
    • Monash University
  • Marina Dabic
    • University of Zagreb
  • Yongjuan Li
    • Chinese Academy of Science
  • Wade Danis
    • Georgia State University
  • Maria Kangasniemi
    • University of Kuopio
  • Mahfooz Ansari
    • University of Lethbridge
  • Liesl Riddle
    • George Washington University
  • Laurie Milton
    • University of Calgary
  • Philip Hallinger
    • Hong Kong Institute of Education
  • Detelin Elenkov
    • University of Tennessee
  • Ilya Girson
    • University of Westminster
  • Modesta Gelbuda
    • Aalborg University
  • Prem Ramburuth
    • University of New South Wales
  • Tania Casado
    • University of São Paulo
  • Ana Maria Rossi
    • Clinica De Stress E Biofeedback
  • Malika Richards
    • Pennsylvania State University—Berks
  • Cheryl Van Deusen
    • University of North Florida
  • Ping-Ping Fu
    • Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Paulina Man Kei Wan
    • Lingnan University
  • Moureen Tang
    • Lingnan University
  • Chay-Hoon Lee
    • Keppel Offshore and Marine
  • Ho-Beng Chia
    • National University of Singapore
  • Yongquin Fan
    • Nanjing Technical University
  • Alan Wallace

DOI: 10.1007/s10551-011-0835-8

Cite this article as:
Ralston, D.A., Egri, C.P., Reynaud, E. et al. J Bus Ethics (2011) 104: 1. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0835-8


This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each society, we report the Cronbach’s α statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency (reliability) as well as report interrater agreement (IRA) analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country values. We also examined whether societal development level is related to systematic variation in the measurement and importance of values. Thus, the contributions of our evaluation of the SVS values dimensions are two-fold. First, we identify the SVS dimensions that have cross-culturally internally reliable structures and within-society agreement for business professionals. Second, we report the society cultural values scores developed from the twenty-first century data that can be used as macro-level predictors in multilevel and single-level international business research.


Cultural valuesInternational managementSchwartz Values Survey

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011