Article

Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 148, Issue 3, pp 479-494

Transfer Coefficients of Momentum, Heat and Water Vapour in the Atmospheric Surface Layer of a Large Freshwater Lake

  • Wei XiaoAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology Email author 
  • , Shoudong LiuAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
  • , Wei WangAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
  • , Dong YangAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
  • , Jiaping XuAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
  • , Chang CaoAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
  • , Hanchao LiAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
  • , Xuhui LeeAffiliated withYale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science & TechnologySchool of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University Email author 

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Abstract

In studies of lake–atmosphere interactions, the fluxes of momentum, water vapour and sensible heat are often parametrized as being proportional to the differences in wind, humidity and air temperature between the water surface and a reference height above the surface. Here, the proportionality via transfer coefficients in these relationships was investigated with the eddy-covariance method at three sites within an eddy-covariance mesonet across Lake Taihu, China. The results indicate that the transfer coefficients decreased with increasing wind speed for weak winds and approached constant values for strong winds. The presence of submerged macrophytes reduced the momentum transfer (drag) coefficient significantly. At the two sites free of submerged macrophytes, the 10-m drag coefficients under neutral stability were 1.8 \((\pm \,0.4) \times \,10^{-3}\) and \(1.7\,(\pm \,0.3) \times \,10^{-3 }\) at the wind speed of \(9\,\text{ m } \text{ s }^{-1}\), which are 38 and 34 % greater than the prediction by the Garratt model for the marine environment.

Keywords

Eddy covariance Evaporation Lake Taihu Sensible heat Submerged macrophytes Transfer coefficients