Modification of TwoEquation Models to Account for Plant Drag
 Andrey Sogachev,
 Oleg Panferov
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A modification of the most popular twoequation (E–φ) models, taking into account the plant drag, is proposed. Here E is the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and φ is any of the following variables: El (product of E and the mixing length l), \(\varepsilon\) (dissipation rate of TKE), and ω (specific dissipation of TKE, \(\omega = \varepsilon\!/\!E\) ). The proposed modification is due to the fact that the model constants estimated experimentally for ‘freeair’ flow do not allow for adequate reconstruction of the ratio between the production and dissipation rates of TKE in the vegetation canopy and have to be adjusted. The modification is universal, i.e. of the same type for all E–φ models considered. The numerical experiments carried out for both homogeneous and heterogeneous plant canopies with E–φ models (and with the E–l model taken as a kind of reference) show that the modification performs well. They also suggest that E– \(\varepsilon\) and E–ω schemes are more promising than the E–El scheme for canopy flow simulation since they are not limited by the need to use a wall function.
In addition, a new parameterization for enhanced dissipation within the plant canopy is derived. It minimizes the model sensitivity to C _{μ}, the key parameter for twoequation schemes, and whose estimates unfortunately vary considerably from experiment to experiment. The comparison of results of new modified E– \(\varepsilon\) and E –ω models with observations from both field and windtunnel experiments shows that the proposed parameterization is quite robust. However, because of uncertainties with the turbulence Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for the E– \(\varepsilon\) model within the canopy, the E–ω model is recommended for future implementation, with the suggested modifications.
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 Title
 Modification of TwoEquation Models to Account for Plant Drag
 Journal

BoundaryLayer Meteorology
Volume 121, Issue 2 , pp 229266
 Cover Date
 20061101
 DOI
 10.1007/s1054600690735
 Print ISSN
 00068314
 Online ISSN
 15731472
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Canopy turbulence
 Plant drag
 Twoequation models
 Turbulence closure
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 Andrey Sogachev ^{(1)}
 Oleg Panferov ^{(2)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Departament of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, Box 68, FIN00014, Helsinki, Finland
 2. Institute of Bioclimatology, University of Goettingen, Buesgenweg 2, Goettingen, Germany