, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 7–25

Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden


    • Department of Soil SciencesSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Magnus Svensson
    • Department of Land and Water Resources EngineeringRoyal Institute of Technology
  • Hooshang Majdi
    • Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Per-Erik Jansson
    • Department of Land and Water Resources EngineeringRoyal Institute of Technology
  • Ola Langvall
    • Asa Experimental Forest and Research StationSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Bo Bergkvist
    • Department of EcologyUniversity of Lund
  • Maj-Britt Johansson
    • Department of Forest SoilsSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Per Weslien
    • Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesGöteborg University
  • Laimi Truusb
    • Institute of EcologyTallin University
  • Anders Lindroth
    • Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem AnalysisLund University
  • Göran I. Ågren
    • Department of EcologySwedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10533-007-9136-9

Cite this article as:
Kleja, D.B., Svensson, M., Majdi, H. et al. Biogeochemistry (2008) 89: 7. doi:10.1007/s10533-007-9136-9


This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001–2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (<1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190–233 g C m−2 year−1). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from −8 g C m−2 year−1 in the north to +9 g C m−2 year−1 in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m−2 year−1.


Soil carbonBoreal ecosystemsClimatic gradientCoupModelRoot litterDissolved organic carbon

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007