Tracing Sources of Streamwater Sulfate During Snowmelt Using S and O Isotope Ratios of Sulfate and 35S Activity
Received: 28 April 2004 Accepted: 28 February 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Shanley, J.B., Mayer, B., Mitchell, M.J. et al. Biogeochemistry (2005) 76: 161. doi:10.1007/s10533-005-2856-9 Abstract
The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur (S) was studied during the 2000 snowmelt at Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont, USA using a hydrochemical and multi-isotope approach. The snowpack and 10 streams of varying size and land use were sampled for analysis of anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC),
35S activity, and δ 34S and δ 18O values of sulfate. At one of the streams, δ 18O values of water also were measured. Apportionment of sulfur derived from atmospheric and mineral sources based on their distinct δ 34S values was possible for 7 of the 10 streams. Although mineral S generally dominated, atmospheric-derived S contributions exceeded 50% in several of the streams at peak snowmelt and averaged 41% overall. However, most of this atmospheric sulfur was not from the melting snowpack; the direct contribution of atmospheric sulfate to streamwater sulfate was constrained by 35S mass balance to a maximum of 7%. Rather, the main source of atmospheric sulfur in streamwater was atmospheric sulfate deposited months to years earlier that had microbially cycled through the soil organic sulfur pool. This atmospheric/pedospheric sulfate (pedogenic sulfate formed from atmospheric sulfate) source is revealed by δ 18O values of streamwater sulfate that remained constant and significantly lower than those of atmospheric sulfate throughout the melt period, as well as streamwater 35S ages of hundreds of days. Our results indicate that the response of streamwater sulfate to changes in atmospheric deposition will be mediated by sulfate retention in the soil. Keywords Isotopic tracers Oxygen-18 Sulfate Sulfur-34 Sulfur-35 Vermont Sleepers River References Alewell, C., Mitchell, M.J., Likens, G.E., Krouse, H.R. 1999 Sources of stream sulfate at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: Long-term analyses using stable isotopes Biogeochemistry 44 281 299 Google Scholar Alewell, C., Mitchell, M.J., Likens, G.E., Krouse, H.R. 2000 Assessing the origin of sulfate deposition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest J. Environ. Qual. 29 759 767 Google Scholar Alewell, C. 2001 Predicting reversibility of acidification: the European sulfur story Water Air Soil Pollut. 130 1271 1276 CrossRef Google Scholar Alewell, C., Novak, M. 2001 Spotting zones of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in a forested catchment: the 34S– 35S approach Environ. Pollut. 112 369 377 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
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