Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 2677–2694

Assessing environment and development outcomes in conservation landscapes


  • Jeffrey Sayer
    • World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International
  • Bruce Campbell
    • School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, and Centre for International Forestry Research
    • School for Environmental ResearchCharles Darwin University
  • Mark Aldrich
    • World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International
  • Manuel Ruiz Perez
    • Departmento de Ecologia-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
  • Dominque Endamana
    • WWF Northern Savannah Project
  • Zacharie-L Nzooh Dongmo
    • Jengi South East Forest Project, WWF Cameroon Country Programme Office
  • Louis Defo
    • WWF South East Cameroon Forest Programme
  • Stephen Mariki
    • WWF Tanzania Programme Office
  • Nike Doggart
    • Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG)
  • Neil Burgess
    • Conservation Science program, WWF
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10531-006-9079-9

Cite this article as:
Sayer, J., Campbell, B., Petheram, L. et al. Biodivers Conserv (2007) 16: 2677. doi:10.1007/s10531-006-9079-9


An approach to assessing the environmental outcomes and changes in peoples’ livelihoods resulting from landscape-scale conservation interventions was developed for three locations in Africa. Simple sets of performance indicators were developed through participatory processes that included a variety of stakeholders. The selection of indicators was designed to reflect wider landscape processes, conservation objectives and as local peoples’ preferred scenarios. This framework, combined with the use of social learning techniques, helped stakeholders develop greater understandings of landscape system dynamics and the linkages between livelihood and conservation objectives. Large scale conservation and development interventions should use these approaches to explore linkages and improve shared understanding of tradeoffs and synergies between livelihood and conservation initiatives. Such approaches provide the basis for negotiating and measuring the outcomes of conservation initiatives and for adapting these to changing perspectives and circumstances.


Adaptive managementConservationEvaluationIndicatorsLandscape performanceLivelihoodsMonitoring Tools



Central African Republic


Department for International Development


Driving Force State Response Framework


Framework for the Evaluation of Sustainable Land Management


Non Government Organisation


Pressure State Response


Tanzania Forest Conservation Group


United Nations Development Program


World Wide Fund for Nature

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006