Original Paper

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 2677-2694

First online:

Assessing environment and development outcomes in conservation landscapes

  • Jeffrey SayerAffiliated withWorld Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International
  • , Bruce CampbellAffiliated withSchool for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, and Centre for International Forestry Research
  • , Lisa PetheramAffiliated withSchool for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University Email author 
  • , Mark AldrichAffiliated withWorld Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International
  • , Manuel Ruiz PerezAffiliated withDepartmento de Ecologia-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
  • , Dominque EndamanaAffiliated withWWF Northern Savannah Project
  • , Zacharie-L Nzooh DongmoAffiliated withJengi South East Forest Project, WWF Cameroon Country Programme Office
  • , Louis DefoAffiliated withWWF South East Cameroon Forest Programme
  • , Stephen MarikiAffiliated withWWF Tanzania Programme Office
    • , Nike DoggartAffiliated withTanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG)
    • , Neil BurgessAffiliated withConservation Science program, WWF

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An approach to assessing the environmental outcomes and changes in peoples’ livelihoods resulting from landscape-scale conservation interventions was developed for three locations in Africa. Simple sets of performance indicators were developed through participatory processes that included a variety of stakeholders. The selection of indicators was designed to reflect wider landscape processes, conservation objectives and as local peoples’ preferred scenarios. This framework, combined with the use of social learning techniques, helped stakeholders develop greater understandings of landscape system dynamics and the linkages between livelihood and conservation objectives. Large scale conservation and development interventions should use these approaches to explore linkages and improve shared understanding of tradeoffs and synergies between livelihood and conservation initiatives. Such approaches provide the basis for negotiating and measuring the outcomes of conservation initiatives and for adapting these to changing perspectives and circumstances.


Adaptive management Conservation Evaluation Indicators Landscape performance Livelihoods Monitoring Tools