Original Paper

Biological Invasions

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 961-975

First online:

The grass may not always be greener: projected reductions in climatic suitability for exotic grasses under future climates in Australia

  • R. V. GallagherAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University Email author 
  • , D. Englert DuursmaAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University
  • , J. O’DonnellAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University
  • , P. D. WilsonAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University
  • , P. O. DowneyAffiliated withInstitute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra
  • , L. HughesAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University
  • , M. R. LeishmanAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University

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Climate change presents a new challenge for the management of invasive exotic species that threaten both biodiversity and agricultural productivity. The invasion of exotic perennial grasses throughout the globe is particularly problematic given their impacts on a broad range of native plant communities and livelihoods. As the climate continues to change, pre-emptive long-term management strategies for exotic grasses will become increasingly important. Using species distribution modelling we investigated potential changes to the location of climatically suitable habitat for some exotic perennial grass species currently in Australia, under a range of future climate scenarios for the decade centred around 2050. We focus on eleven species shortlisted or declared as the Weeds of National Significance or Alert List species in Australia, which have also become successful invaders in other parts of the world. Our results indicate that the extent of climatically suitable habitat available for all of the exotic grasses modelled is projected to decrease under climate scenarios for 2050. This reduction is most severe for the three species of Needle Grass (genus Nassella) that currently have infestations in the south-east of the continent. Combined with information on other aspects of establishment risk (e.g. demographic rates, human-use, propagule pressure), predictions of reduced climatic suitability provide justification for re-assessing which weeds are prioritised for intensive management as the climate changes.


Alert List Climate change Exotic grasses Maxent Species distribution models Weeds of national significance