Original Paper

Biological Invasions

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 567-577

First online:

Humans introduce viable seeds to the Arctic on footwear

  • Chris WareAffiliated withThe University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS)
  • , Dana M. BergstromAffiliated withAustralian Antarctic Division, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
  • , Eike MüllerAffiliated withThe University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS)
  • , Inger Greve AlsosAffiliated withThe University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS)Tromsø University Museum Email author 

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Expanding visitation to Polar regions combined with climate warming increases the potential for alien species introduction and establishment. We quantified vascular plant propagule pressure associated with different groups of travelers to the high-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, and evaluated the potential of introduced seeds to germinate under the most favorable average Svalbard soil temperature (10°C). We sampled the footwear of 259 travelers arriving by air to Svalbard during the summer of 2008, recording 1,019 seeds: a mean of 3.9 (±0.8) seeds per traveler. Assuming the seed influx is representative for the whole year, we estimate a yearly seed load of around 270,000 by this vector alone. Seeds of 53 species were identified from 17 families, with Poaceae having both highest diversity and number of seeds. Eight of the families identified are among those most invasive worldwide, while the majority of the species identified were non-native to Svalbard. The number of seeds was highest on footwear that had been used in forested and alpine areas in the 3 months prior to traveling to Svalbard, and increased with the amount of soil affixed to footwear. In total, 26% of the collected seeds germinated under simulated Svalbard conditions. Our results demonstrate high propagule transport through aviation to highly visited cold-climate regions and isolated islands is occurring. Alien species establishment is expected to increase with climate change, particularly in high latitude regions, making the need for regional management considerations a priority.


Alien Non-indigenous Dispersal Germination Human-mediated dispersal Propagule pressure