Tissues samples of leiomyoma and myometrium obtained intraoperatively were analyzed. For evaluation of the synthesis of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin-2, interleukin-8, CCR1, CCR3, CCR5, CXCR1, and CXCR2, mRNA isolated from tissues samples of leiomyoma and myometrium was subjected to reverse transcription-PCR and assayed by a semiquantitative method (relative to β-actin). The content of eotaxin, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and CCR5 mRNA in leiomyoma tissue was lower than in the myometrium. The concentration of MIP-1β, CCR5, and eotaxin mRNA in common leiomyoma was much lower than in the myometrium. Eotaxin mRNA expression in myometrial tissue of patients with single nodes was much higher than in those with multiple nodes. Moreover, expression of eotaxin mRNA in common leiomyoma was higher than in proliferating leiomyoma. The concentration of mRNA for interleukin-8 in leiomyoma tissue, as well as the content of mRNA for MIP-1α and CCR3 in myometrial tissue increased in patients with submucosal nodes (as distinct from nodes of another location). A direct correlation was revealed between the size of the uterus and concentration of mRNA for interleukin-8 and MIP-1β in myometrial tissue. The concentration of mRNA for MIP-1α and MIP-1β in leiomyoma tissue negatively correlated with the size of the uterus (maximum size of the node) and duration of leiomyoma, respectively. Our results indicate that chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma.