Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, 34:59

First online:

Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: QEEG Biofeedback Treatment Protocols

  • Kirtley E. ThorntonAffiliated withBrain Foundation Email author 
  • , Dennis P. CarmodyAffiliated withInstitute for the Study of Child Development, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

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Interventions for improvement of cognitive problems in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) include electroencephalography biofeedback, also known as neurofeedback. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns are assessed in TBI patients and then compared to a database obtained from a normative population. Deviations in QEEG patterns from the normative group are the basis for an intervention plan. While QEEG patterns, obtained under an eyes closed, resting condition, provide information about deviations at rest, QEEG patterns obtained while the patient engages in cognitive tasks reflect specific deficiencies in brain functioning. This paper reviews and assesses QEEG patterns collected under both resting conditions as well as cognitive tasks. The article provides a theoretical and empirical base for QEEG interventions with TBI.


EEG biofeedback Traumatic brain injury Cognitive rehabilitation Activation QEEG Memory rehabilitation Cognitive challenge