Economic Adversity and Depressive Symptoms in Mothers: Do Marital Status and Perceived Social Support Matter?
- Sharon Kingston
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that marriage and perhaps other forms of interpersonal support can buffer the negative effects of poverty. The current study tests the hypothesis that marital status, perceived social support and neighborhood collective efficacy can moderate the effects of economic adversity on depressive symptoms among parents. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were 1,957 mothers of minor children. Analysis of main effects revealed associations between neighborhood SES (β = −0.69, SE (0.15), p < .001), family income (β = −0.11, SE (0.05), p = .02) financial strain (β = 0.51, SE (0.18), p = .004), being single (β = 0.63, SE (0.24), p = .009) and perceived social support (β = −0.22, SE (0.03), p < .001) on depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that interpersonal resources can buffer the effects of economic adversity was not supported. There were no significant interactions between marital status and economic adversity. There was a significant interaction between perceived social support and neighborhood level socioeconomic status (β = −0.07, SE (0.03), p = .04) but the effects of social support were weakest in neighborhoods characterized by low socioeconomic status.
- Brown, S. L. (2000). The effect of union type on psychological well-being: Depression among cohabitors versus marrieds. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(3), 241–255. doi:10.2307/2676319. CrossRef
- Cairney, J., Boyle, M., Offord, D. R., & Racine, Y. (2003). Stress, social support and depression in single and married mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(8), 442–449. doi:10.1007/s00127-003-0661-0. CrossRef
- Carpenter, J. S., Andrykowski, M. A., Wilson, J., Hall, L. A., Rayens, M. K., Sachs, B., et al. (1998). Psychometrics for two short forms of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 19(5), 481–494. CrossRef
- Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310–357. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310. CrossRef
- Conger, R. D., Jewsbury Conger, K., Matthews, L. S., & Elder, G. H. J. (1999). Pathways of economic influence on adolescent adjustment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(4), 519–541. doi:10.1023/A:1022133228206. CrossRef
- Coulton, C. J., Korbin, J. E., Su, M., & Chow, J. (1995). Community level factors and child maltreatment rates. Child Development, 66(5), 1262–1276. doi:10.2307/1131646. CrossRef
- Cunningham, A., & Knoester, C. (2007). Marital status, gender, and parents’ psychological well-being. Sociological Inquiry, 77(2), 264–287. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.2007.00190.x. CrossRef
- Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Abraham, W. T., Gardner, K. A., Melby, J. M., Bryant, C., et al. (2003). Neighborhood context and financial strain as predictors of marital interaction and marital quality in African American couples. Personal Relationships, 10(3), 389–409. doi:10.1111/1475-6811.00056. CrossRef
- Davidson, T. M., Price, M., McCauley, J. L., & Ruggiero, K. J. (2013). Disaster impact across cultural groups: Comparison of Whites, African Americans, and Latinos. American Journal of Community Psychology,. doi:10.1007/s10464-013-9579-1.
- Dearing, E., Taylor, B. A., & McCartney, K. (2004). Implications of family income dynamics for women’s depressive symptoms during the first 3 years after childbirth. American Journal of Public Health, 94(8), 1372–1377. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.8.1372. CrossRef
- Dupéré, V., Leventhal, T., & Vitaro, F. (2012). Neighborhood processes, self-efficacy, and adolescent mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 53(2), 183–198. doi:10.1177/0022146512442676. CrossRef
- Elliot, M. (2000). The stress process in neighborhood context. Health & Place, 6, 287–299.
- Evenson, R. J., & Simon, R. W. (2005). Clarifying the relationship between parenthood and depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(4), 341–358. doi:10.1177/002214650504600403. CrossRef
- Galea, S., Ahern, J., Nandi, A., Tracy, M., Beard, J., & Vlahov, D. (2007). Urban neighborhood poverty and the incidence of depression in a population-based cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology, 17(3), 171–179. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2006.07.008. CrossRef
- Goosby, B. J. (2007). Poverty duration, maternal psychological resources, and adolescent socioemotional outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 28(8), 1113–1134. doi:10.1177/0192513X07300712. CrossRef
- Hatch, S. L., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (2007). Distribution of traumatic and other stressful life events by race/ethnicity, gender, SES and age: A review of the research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40(3–4), 313–332. doi:10.1007/s10464-007-9134-z. CrossRef
- Hilton, J. M., & Kopera-Frye, K. (2007). Differences in resources provided by grandparents in single and married parent families. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 47(1–2), 33–54. doi:10.1300/J087v47n01_03. CrossRef
- Jackson, P. B. (1992). Specifying the buffering hypothesis: Support, strain, and depression. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55(4), 363–378. doi:10.2307/2786953. CrossRef
- Lincoln, K. D., & Chae, D. H. (2010). Stress, marital satisfaction, and psychological distress among African Americans. Journal of Family Issues, 31(8), 1081–1105. doi:10.1177/0192513X10365826. CrossRef
- Lincoln, K. D., Chatters, L. M., & Taylor, R. J. (2005). Social support, traumatic events, and depressive symptoms among African Americans. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(3), 754–766. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00167.x. CrossRef
- Mair, C., Diez Roux, A. V., Shen, M., Shea, S., Seeman, T., Echeverria, S., et al. (2009). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighborhood cohesion and stressors with depressive symptoms in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. Annals of Epidemiology, 19(1), 49–57. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.10.002. CrossRef
- Manning, W. D., & Lichter, D. T. (1996). Parental cohabitation and children’s economic well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58(4), 998–1010. doi:10.2307/353986. CrossRef
- McLanahan, S., & Adams, J. (1987). Parenthood and psychological well-being. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 237–257. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.13.080187.001321. CrossRef
- McLanahan, S., Haskins, R., Garfinkel, I., Mincy, R. B., & Donahue, E. (2010). Strengthening fragile families. In The future of children. Princton, NJ: Princeton-Brookings.
- McLoyd, V. C., & Wilson, L. (1990). Maternal behavior, social support, and economic conditions as predictors of distress in children. New Directions for Child Development, 46, 49–69. doi:10.1002/cd.23219904605. CrossRef
- Mulvaney, C., & Kendrick, D. (2005). Depressive symptoms in mothers of pre-school children: Effects of deprivation, social support, stress and neighbourhood social capital. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(3), 202–208. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0859-4. CrossRef
- Nærde, A., Tambs, K., Mathiesen, K. S., Dalgard, O. S., & Samuelsen, S. O. (2000). Symptoms of anxiety and depression among mothers of pre-school children: Effect of chronic strain related to children and child-taking. Journal of Affective Disorders, 58(3), 181–199. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00119-6. CrossRef
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Liu, X. (2000). Statistical power and optimal design for multisite randomized trials. Psychological Methods, 5(2), 199–213. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.5.2.199. CrossRef
- Roosa, M. W., Deng, S., Nair, R. L., & Burrell, G. L. (2005). Measures for studying poverty in family and child research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(4), 971–988. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00188.x. CrossRef
- Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924. doi:10.1126/science.277.5328.918. CrossRef
- Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., Zenk, S. N., Parker, E. A., Lichtenstein, R., Shellman-Weir, S., et al. (2006). Psychosocial stress and social support as mediators of relationships between income, length of residence and depressive symptoms among African American women on Detroit’s eastside. Social Science and Medicine, 62(2), 510–522. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.028. CrossRef
- Snijders, T. A., & Bosker, R. J. (1993). Standard errors and sample sizes for two-level research. Journal of Educational Statistics, 18(3), 237–259. doi:10.2307/1165134. CrossRef
- Steptoe, A., & Feldman, P. J. (2001). Neighborhood problems as sources of chronic stress: Development of a measure of neighborhood problems, and associations with socioeconomic status and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23(3), 177–185. doi:10.1207/S15324796ABM2303_5. CrossRef
- Turner, R. J., & Avison, W. R. (2003). Status variations in stress exposure: Implications for the interpretation of research on race, socioeconomic status, and gender. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(4), 488–505. doi:10.2307/1519795. CrossRef
- Turner, R. J., Frankel, B. G., & Levin, D. M. (1983). Social support: Conceptualization, measurement, and implications for mental health. Research in Community & Mental Health, 3, 67–111.
- Vaeth, P. A. C., Ramisetty-Mikler, S., & Caetano, R. (2010). Depression among couples in the united states in the context of intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(5), 771–790. doi:10.1177/0886260509336957. CrossRef
- Vega, W. A., Ang, A., Rodriguez, M. A., & Finch, B. K. (2011). Neighborhood protective effects on depression in Latinos. American Journal of Community Psychology, 47(1–2), 114–126. doi:10.1007/s10464-010-9370-5. CrossRef
- Zimmerman, F. J., & Katon, W. (2005). Socioeconomic status, depression disparities, and financial strain: What lies behind the income–depression relationship? Health Economics, 14(12), 1197–1215. doi:10.1002/hec.1011. CrossRef
- Economic Adversity and Depressive Symptoms in Mothers: Do Marital Status and Perceived Social Support Matter?
American Journal of Community Psychology
Volume 52, Issue 3-4 , pp 359-366
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Social support
- Marital status
- Neighborhood collective efficacy
- Sharon Kingston (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA, USA