Arthur, W., Jr., Bennett, W., Jr., Stanush, P. L., & McNelly, T. L. (1998). Factors that influence skill decay and retention: A quantitative review and analysis. Human Performance,
*Astroth, K. A., & Haynes, G. W. (2002). More than cows and cooking: Newest research shows the impact of 4-H. Journal of Extension, 40, 1–10.
*Baker, K., Pollack, M., & Kohn, I. (1995). Violence prevention through informal socialization: An evaluation of the South Baltimore Youth Center. Studies on Crime and Prevention, 4, 61–85.
*Baker, D., & Witt, P. A. (1996). Evaluation of the impact of two after-school programs. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 14, 60–81.
Baldwin, S. A., Murray, D. M., & Shadish, W. R. (2005). Empirically supported treatments or Type I errors? Problems with the analysis of data from group administered treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
*Belgrave, F. Z., Chase-Vaughn, G., Gray, F., Addison, J. D., & Cherry, V. R. (2000). The effectiveness of a culture- and gender-specific intervention for increasing resiliency among African American preadolescent females. Journal of Black Psychology, 26, 133–147.
*Bergin, D. A., Hudson, L. M., Chryst, C. F., & Resetar, M. (1992). An afterschool intervention program for educationally disadvantaged young children. The Urban Review, 24, 203–217.
Birmingham, J., Pechman, E. M., Russell, C. A., & Mielke, M. (2005). Shared features of high
-school programs: A follow
-up to the TASC evaluation
. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates. Retrieved May 29, 2007 from www.sedl.org/pubs/catalog/items/fam107.html
*Bissell, J., Dugan, C., Ford-Johnson, A., Jones, P., & Ashurst, J. (2002). Evaluation of the YS-CARE after school program for California work opportunity and responsibility to kids (CalWORKS). Department of Education, University of California, Irvine and Research Support Services.
Bodilly, S., & Beckett, M. K. (2005). Making out
-school time matter: Evidence for an action agenda.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Retrieved September 10, 2005, from www.rand.og//pubs/monographs/MG242/index.html
Bond, L. A., & Hauf, A. M. C. (2004). Taking stock and putting stock in primary prevention: Characteristics of effective programs. Journal of Primary Prevention,
*Brooks, P. E., Mojica, C. M., & Land, R. E. (1995). Final evaluation report: Longitudinal study of LA’s BEST after school education and enrichment program, 1992–1994. Los Angeles: University of California, Graduate School of Education & Information Studies, Center for the Study of Evaluation.
Cason, D., & Gillis, H. L. L. (1994). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education,
*Chase, R. A. (2000). Hmong American partnership: 2HTN final report. St. Paul, MN: Wilder Research Center.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hilllsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning [CASEL]. (2005). Safe and sound: An educational leader’s guide to evidence
-based social and emotional learning programs
Retrieved January 10, 2007, from http://www.casel.org
Commission on Positive Youth Development. (2005). The positive perspective on youth development. In D. W. Evans, E. B. Foa, R. E. Gur, H. Hendin, C. P. O’brien, M. E. P. Seligman, & B. T. Walsh (Eds.), Treating and preventing adolescent mental health disorders: What we know and what we don’t know (pp. 497–527). NY: Oxford University Press.
Cooper, H., Charlton, K., Valentine, J. C., & Muhlenbruck, L. (2000). Making the most of summer school: A meta-analytic and narrative review. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,
Derzon, J. (2006). How effective are school-based violence prevention programs in preventing and reducing violence and other antisocial behaviors? A meta-analysis. In S. R. Jimerson & J. J. Furlong (Eds.), The handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. 429–441). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.
DuBois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology,
Durlak, J. A. (1997). Successful prevention programs for children and adolescents. New York: Plenum.
Durlak, J. A. (2009). How to select, calculate, and interpret effect sizes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34
Durlak, J. A.,Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R, D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2009). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional development: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Durlak, J. A., & Wells, A. M. (1997). Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology,
Dusenbury, L., & Falco, M. (1995). Eleven components of effective drug prevention curricula. Journal of School Health,
Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics,
*Dynarski, M., James-Burdumy, S., Moore, M., Rosenberg, L., Deke, J., & Mansfield, W. (2004). When schools stay open late: The national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program: New findings. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office.
Eccles, J. S., & Templeton, J. (2002). Extracurricular and other after-school activities for youth. Review of Research in Education,
*Fabiano, L., Pearson, L. M., & Williams, I. J. (2005). Putting students on a pathway to academic and social success: Phase III findings of the Citizen Schools evaluation. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates, Inc.
*Foley, E. M., & Eddins, G. (2001). Preliminary analysis of Virtual Y after-school program participants’ patterns of school attendance and academic performance: Final evaluation report program year 1999–2000. NY: National Center for Schools and Communities, Fordham University.
*Fuentes, E. G. (1983). A primary prevention program for psychological and cultural identity enhancement: Puerto Rican children in semi-rural northeast United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (05), 1578B.
Gerstenblith, S. A., Soule, D. A., Gottfredson, D. C., Lu, S., Kellstrom, M. A., & Womer, S. C. (2005). After-school programs, antisocial behavior, and positive youth development: An exploration of the relationship between program implementation and changes in youth behavior. In J. L. Mahoney, J. S. Eccles, R. W. Larson, et al. (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 457–478). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Gottfredson, D. C., Soule, D. A., & Cross, A. (2004). A statewide evaluation of the Maryland after school opportunity fund program. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland.
Granger, R. C. (2008). After-school programs and academics: Implications for policy practice, and research. Social Policy Report,
Granger, R. C., & Kane, T. (2004). Improving the quality of after-school programs. Education Week,
*Grenawalt, A., Halback, T., Miller, M., Mitchell, A., O’Roarke, B., Schmitz, T., et al. (2005). 4-H animal science program evaluation: Spring 2004–What is the value of the Wisconsin 4-H Animal Science Projects? Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension.
Gresham, F. M. (1995). Best practices in social skills training. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology-III (pp. 1021–1030). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.
*Hahn, A., Leavitte, T., & Aaron, P. (1994). Evaluation of the Quantum Opportunities Program (QOP): Did the program work? Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, Heller Graduate School, Center for Human Resources.
Haney, P., & Durlak, J. A. (1998). Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology,
Hansen, D. M., & Larson, R. W. (2007). Amplifiers of developmental and negative experiences in organized activities: Dosage, motivation, lead roles, and adult-youth ratios. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,
Harvard Family Research Project. (2003). A review of out-of-school time program quasi-experimental and experimental evaluation results. Cambirdge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.
Harvard Family Research Project (2009). Out
-time program research and evaluation database and bibliography
. Retrieved June 5, 2009 from http://www.hfrp.org/out-of-school-time/ost-database-bibliography
Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. NY: Academic Press.
Higgins, J. P., Thompson, S. G., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. British Medical Journal,
High/Scope Educational Research Foundation. (2005). Youth program quality assessment validation study: Findings for instrument validation.
Retrieved April 6, 2006 from http://www.highschope.org/EducationalPrograms/Adolescent/YouthPQA/YouthPQASummary.pdj
Hill, J. C., Bloom, H. S., Black, A. R., & Lipsey, M. W. (2008). Empirical benchmarks for interpreting effect sizes in research. Child Development Perspectives,
Hirsch, B., & Wong, V. (2005). A place to call home: After-school programs for urban youth
. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and New York: Teachers College Press.CrossRef
*Huang, D. (2004). Exploring the long-term impact of LA’s Best on student’s social and academic development. Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).
*Huang, D., Sung Kim, K., Marshall, A., & Perez, P. (2005). Keeping kids in school: An LA’s BEST example National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) Center, Center for the Study of Evaluation (CSE), Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles.
*Hudley, C. (Ed.). (1999). Problem behaviors in middle childhood: Understanding risk status and protective factors. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: California Wellness Foundation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 430 066).
Institute for Education Sciences. (2008a). What works clearinghouse procedures and Standards Workbook, Version 2.0, December, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2009 from http/ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/references/idocViewer/Doc.aspx?docid=198tocid=1.
Institute for Education Sciences. (2008b). Technical details of WWC-conducted computations. Retrieved June 6, 2008 from http//ies.ed.gov.ncee.wwc/pdf/conducted_computations.pdf.
*James-Burdumy, S., Dynarski, M., Moore, M., Deke, J., & Mansfield, W. (2005). When school stay open late: The national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.
Kane, T. J. (2004). The impact of after
-school programs: Interpreting the results of four recent evaluations
. Retrieved January 17, 2006 from www.wtgrantfondation.org/usr_doc/After-school_paper.pdf
Ladd, G. W., & Mize, J. (1983). A cognitive social learning model of social skill training. Psychological Review,
*LaFrance, S., Twersky, F., Latham, N., Foley, E., Bott, C., Lee, L., et al. (2001). A safe place for healthy youth development: A comprehensive evaluation of the Bayview Safe Haven. San Francisco, CA: BTW Consultants and LaFrance Associates.
Lauer, P. A., Akiba, M., Wilkerson, S. B., Apthorp, H. S., Snow, D., & Martin-Green, M. (2006). Out-of school time programs: A meta-analysis of effects for at-risk students. Review of Educational Research,
*Lauver, S. C. (2002). Assessing the benefits of an after-school program for urban youth: An impact and process evaluation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (02), 533A.
*LeCroy, W. W. (2004). Experimental evaluation of “Go Grrrls” preventive intervention for early adolescent girls. Journal of Primary Prevention, 25, 457–473.
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
*LoSciuto, L., Hilbert, S. M., Fox, M. M., Porcellini, L., & Lanphear, A. (1999). A two-year evaluation of the Woodrock Youth Development Project. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 488–507.
Lösel, F., & Beelman, A. (2003). Effects of child skills training in preventing antisocial behavior: A systematic review of randomized evaluations. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
Mahoney, J. P., Parente, M. E., & Zigler, E. F. Afterschool program participation and children’s development. In J. Meece & J. Eccles (Eds.), Handbook of research on schools, schooling, and human development. New York: Wiley (in press).
*Mahoney, J. L., Lord, H., & Carryl, E. (2005). Afterschool program participation and the development of child obesity and peer acceptance. Applied Developmental Science, 9, 202–215.
Mahoney, J. L., Parente, M. E., & Lord, H. (2007). Program-level differences in afterschool program engagement: Links to child competence, program quality and content. The Elementary School Journal,
Mahoney, J. L., Schweder, A. E., & Stattin, H. (2002). Structured after-school activities as a moderator of depressed mood for adolescents with detached relations to their parents. Journal of Community Psychology,
Mahoney, J. L., Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (2001). Youth recreation centre participation and criminal offending: A 20-year longitudinal study of Swedish boys. International Journal of Behavioral Development,
Mahoney, J. P., & Zigler, E. F. (2006). Translating science to policy under the No Child Left Behind act of 2001: Lessons from the national evaluation of the 21st-Century Community Learning Centers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,
*Mason, M. J., & Chuang, S. (2001). Culturally-based after-school art programming for low-income urban children: Adaptive and preventive effects. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 45–54.
*Maxfield, M., Schirm, A., & Rodriguez-Planas, N. (2003). The Quantum Opportunity Program demonstration: Implementation and short-term impacts. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research.
*McClanahan, W. S., Sipe, C. L., & Smith, T. J. (2004). Enriching summer work: An evaluation of the summer career exploration program. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.
Miller, B. M. (2003). Critical hours: After
-school programs and educational success.
New York: Nellie Mae Education Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2005 from www.nmefdn.org/uploads/Critical_hours_Full.pdf
*Monsaas, J. (1994). Evaluation report–Final validation: Project EMERGE, Cript County Atlanta, GA: Emory University.
*Morrison, G. M., Storino, M. H., Robertson, L. M., Weissglass, T., & Dondero, A. (2000). The protective function of after-school programming and parent education and support for students at risk for substance abuse. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 365–371.
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
*Neufeld, J., Smith, M. G., Estes, H., & Hill, G. C. (1995). Rural after school child care: A demonstration project in a remote mining community. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 14, 12–16.
*Oyserman, D., Terry, K., & Bybee, D. (2002). A possible selves intervention to enhance school involvement. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 313–326.
Pechman, E. M., Russell, C. A., & Birmingham, J. (2008). Out
-school time (OST) observation instrument: Report of the validation study
. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates, Inc. Retrieved July 30, 2009 from www.policystudies.com
*Philliber, S., Kaye, J., & Herrling, S. (2001). The national evaluation of the Children’s Aid Society Carrera model program to prevent teen pregnancy. Accord, NY: Philliber Research Associates.
*Phillips, Ruby S. C. (1999). Intervention with siblings of children with developmental disabilities from economically disadvantaged families. Families in Society, 80, 569–577.
*Pierce, L. H., & Shields, N. (1998). The Be A Star community-based after-school program: Developing resiliency in high-risk preadolescent youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 175–183.
*Prenovost, J. K. E. (2001). A first-year evaluation of after school learning programs in four urban middle schools in the Santa Ana Unified School District. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (03), 884A.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Riggs, N. R., & Greenberg, M. T. (2004). After-school youth development programs: A developmental-ecological model of current research. Clinical Child and Family Review,
*Ross, J. G., Saavadra, P. J., Shur, G. H., Winters, F., & Felner, R. D. (1992). The effectiveness of an after-school program for primary grade latchkey students on precursors of substance abuse. Journal of Community Psychology, OSAP Special Issue, 22–38.
Roth, J. L., Malone, L. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2010). Does the amount of participation in afterschool programs relate to developmental outcomes: A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology
*Rusche, S., Kemp, P., Krizmanich, J., Bowles, E., Moore, B., Craig Jr., H. E., et al. (1999). Helping everyone reach out: Club Hero, final report. Atlanta, GA: National Families in Action & Emstar Research.
Salas, E., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (2001). The science of training: A decade of progress. Annual Review of Psychology,
*Schinke, S. P., Orlandi, M. A., Botvin, G. J., Gilchrist, L. D., Trimble, J. E., & Locklear, V. S. (1988). Preventing substance abuse among American-Indian adolescents: A bicultural competence skills approach. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 87–90.
*Schinke, S. P., Orlandi, M. A., & Cole, K. C. (1992). Boys & Girls Clubs in public housing developments: Prevention services for youth at risk. Journal of Community Psychology,
OSAP Special Issue, 118–128.
Sheldon, J. Arbreton, A., Hopkins, L., & Grossman, J. B. (in press). Investing in success: Key strategies for building quality in after-school programs. American Journal of Community Psychology
Shernoff, D. J. (2010). Engagement in after-school programs as a predictor of social competence and academic performance. American Journal of Community Psychology
Simpkins, S., Little, P., & Weiss, H. (2004). Understanding and measuring attendance in out
-school time programs.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Available at www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/projects/afterschool/resources/issuebrief7.html
*Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Curtis, B. (1979). Coach effectiveness training: A cognitive-behavioral approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 59–75.
*Smoll, F. L., Smith, R. E., Barnett, N. P., & Everett, J. J. (1993). Enhancement of children’s self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 602–610.
Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (2006). Time for Achievement: Afterschool and out-of-school time. SEDL Letter, 18,
Number 1. Retrieved January 10, 2006 from http:/www.sedl.org/pubs/sedl-letter/v18n01/SEDLLetter-v18n01.pdf
*St. Pierre, T. L., & Kaltreider, D. L. (1992). Drug prevention in a community setting: A longitudinal study of the relative effectiveness of a three-year primary prevention program in Boys & Girls Club across the nation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 673–706.
*St. Pierre, T. L., Mark, M. M., Kaltreider, D. L., & Aikin, K. J. (1997). Involving parents of high-risk youth in drug prevention: A three-year longitudinal study in Boys & Girls Clubs. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17, 21–50.
*St. Pierre, T. L., Mark, M. M., Kaltreider, D. L., & Campbell, B. (2001). Boys and Girls Clubs and school collaborations: A longitudinal study of a multicomponent substance abuse prevention program for high-risk elementary school children. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 87–106.
*Tebes, J. K., Feinn, R., Vanderploeg, J. J. Chinman, M. J., Shepard, J. Brabham, T., et al. (2007). Impact of a positive youth development program in urban after-school settings on the prevention of adolescent substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 239–247.
Tobler, N. S., Roona, M. R., Ochshorn, P., Marshall, D. G., Streke, A. V., & Stackpole, K. M. (2000). School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. The Journal of Primary Prevention,
*Tucker, C. M., & Herman, K. C. (2002). Using culturally sensitive theories and research to meet the academic needs of low-income African American children. American Psychologist, 57, 762-773.
Vacha-Haase, T., & Thompson, B. (2004). How to estimate and interpret effect sizes. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
*Vandell, D. L., Reisner, E. R., Brown, B. B., Dadisman, K., Pierce, K. M., & Lee, D. et al. (2005). The study of promising after
-school programs: Examination of intermediate outcomes in year 2
. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/childcare/statements.html
*Vandell, D. L., Reisner, E. R., Brown, B. B., Dadisman, K., Pierce, K. M., & Lee, D. (2004). The study of promising after
-school programs: Descriptive report of the promising programs
. University of Wisconsin, Madison: Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/childcare/statements.html
*Vincent, V., & Guinn, R. (2001). Effectiveness of a Colonia educational intervention. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 23, 229–238.
*Weisman, S. A., Soule, D. A., & Womer, S. C. (2001). Maryland after school community grant program report on the 1999–2000 school year evaluation of the phase 1 after-school programs. University of Maryland, College Park.
*Weisman, S. A., Womer, S. C., Kellstrom, M., Bryner, S., Kahler, A., Slocum, L. A., et al. (2003). Maryland after school grant program part 1: Report on the 2001–2002 school year evaluation of the phase 3 after school programs. University of Maryland, College Park.
Weissberg, R. P., & Greenberg, M. T. (1998). School and community competence-enhancement and prevention programs. In I. E. Siegel & K. A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol 4: Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. 877–954). New York: Wiley.
Wilson, D. B., Gottfredson, D. C., & Najaka, S. S. (2001). School-based prevention of problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,
Wilson, S. J., Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (2003). The effects of school-based intervention programs on aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Yohalem, N., Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. Fischer, S., & Shinn, M. (2007). Measuring youth program quality: A guide to assessment tools.
Retrieved April 20, 2007 from www.forumfyi.org/Files/Measuring_youth_
*Zief, S. G. (2005). A mixed methods study of the impacts and processes of an after-school program for urban elementary youth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (Eds.). (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say?. New York: Teachers College Press.