The Ethical, Legal and Human Rights Concerns Raised by Licensing HIV Self-Testing for Private Use
We argue that there are no compelling ethical grounds for not allowing the sale of HIV self-tests to the public, so long as reasonably robust protections are in place to protect against coerced testing, and so long as the ease of use of the test is validated carefully in each country in which it is used, with attention to information about linkage to treatment, social and psychological support. The tests are not likely to be harmful in a way that justifies restricting people’s access to them, and have plausible benefits. Whether and how self-testing should be used in public health programs will depend on complex policy questions concerning priorities, efficacy and cost.
- Alcorn A. Legal barrier to self-testing for HIV in UK to be lifted. NAM AIDSMAP [cited 2013 Oct 14]. Available from: http://www.aidsmap.com/Legal-barrier-to-self-testing-for-HIV-in-UK-to-be-lifted/page/2731557/.
- World Health Organization (WHO). Report on the first international symposium on self-testing for HIV: the legal, ethical, gender, human rights and public health implications of HIV self testing scale up. Geneva: WHO; Apr 8–9, 2013 [cited 2013 Oct 14]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85267/1/9789241505628_eng.pdf.
- Pant Pai, N, Sharma, J, Shivkumar, S, Pillay, S, Vadnais, C (2013) Supervised and unsupervised self-testing for HIV in high- and low-risk populations: asystematic review. PLoS Med 10: pp. e1001414 CrossRef
- Choko AT, MacPherson P, Webb EL, Ball H, Sambakunsi R, Mdolo A, Makombe SD, Desmond N, Hayes R, and Corbett EL. One year outcomes following community-based HIV self-testing: a prospective study in Malawi, Abstract 147. Presented at Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston. 3–6 Mar 2014.
- Asiimwe S1, Oloya J, Song X, Whalen CC. Accuracy of un-supervised versus provider-supervised self-administered HIV testing in Uganda: a randomized implementation trial. AIDS Behav. Apr 2014 [cited 2014 May 27]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691923.
- United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). OraQuick®In-home HIV Test summary of safety and effectiveness. Silver Spring, MD: US FDA; 2012 [cited 2014 May 4]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/BloodBloodProducts/ApprovedProducts/PremarketApprovalsPMAs/UCM312534.pdf.
- Krause, J, Subklew-Sehume, F, Kenyon, C, Colebunders, R (2013) Acceptability of HIV self-testing: a systematic literature review. BMC Public Health 8: pp. 735 CrossRef
- World Health Organization (WHO). Guidance on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in health facilities. Geneva: WHO; 2007 [cited 2014 Jan 4]. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595568_eng.pdf
- South African National Department of Health. National HIV counselling and testing policy guidelines, Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2010 [cited 2014 May 21]. Available from: http://www.uj.ac.za/EN/CorporateServices/ioha/Documentation/Documents/hct_policy_guidelines%202010.pdf
- The World Bank. Data South Africa. World Bank Group; 2014 [cited 2014 Jan 5]. Available from: http://data.worldbank.org/country/south-africa
- The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2013: p.80 [cited 2014 Jan 4]. Available from: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf
- Ngʼangʼa, A, Waruiru, W, Ngare, C, Ssempijja, V, Gachuki, T, Njoroge, I, Oluoch, P, Kimanga, DO, Maina, WK, Mpazanje, R, Kim, AA (2014) The status of HIV testing and counseling in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 66: pp. S27-S36 CrossRef
- Venkatesh, KK, Madiba, P, Bruyn, G, Lurie, MN, Coates, TJ, Gray, GE (2011) Who gets tested for HIV in a South African urban township? Implications for test and treat and gender-based prevention interventions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56: pp. 151-165 CrossRef
- Fonner, VA, Denison, J, Kennedy, CE, O’Reilly, K, Sweat, M (2012) Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for changing HIV-related risk behavior in developing countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9: pp. CD001224
- Rosen, S, Fox, MP (2011) Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Med 8: pp. e1001056 CrossRef
- Richter, M, Venter, WD, Gray, A (2010) Home self-testing for HIV: AIDS exceptionalism gone wrong. S Afr Med J 100: pp. 636-642
- Weait, M (2007) Intimacy and responsibility: the criminalization of HIV transmission. Routledge-Cavendish, Oxon
- Jürgens R, Cohen J, Cameron E, Burris S, Clayton M, Elliott R, et al. 10 Reasons to oppose the criminalization of HIV exposure or transmission; New York: Open Society Institute; 2008 [cited 2013 Oct 19]. Available from: http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/10reasons_20081201.pdf.
- The Ethical, Legal and Human Rights Concerns Raised by Licensing HIV Self-Testing for Private Use
AIDS and Behavior
Volume 18, Issue 4 Supplement, pp 433-437
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Human rights
- HIV self testing
- Industry Sectors