Original Paper

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 137-144

Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors by Gender in a Sample of Tanzanian Injection Drug Users

  • Mark L. WilliamsAffiliated withCenter for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Email author 
  • , Sheryl A. McCurdyAffiliated withSchool of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
  • , John S. AtkinsonAffiliated withSchool of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
  • , Gad P. KilonzoAffiliated withMuhimbili University College of Health Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam
  • , M. T. LeshabariAffiliated withMuhimbili University College of Health Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam
  • , Michael W. RossAffiliated withSchool of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

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Abstract

This study investigated differences in drug use and sexual behaviors among from 237 male and 123 female heroin users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Multivariate models of risk of needle sharing were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Men were significantly older, more likely to inject only white heroin, share needles, and give or lend used needles to other injectors. Women were more likely to be living on the streets, have injected brown heroin, have had sex, have had a higher number of sex partners, and have used a condom with the most recent sex partner. Being male and earning less than US $46 in the past month were significant predictors of increased risk of needle sharing. Despite differences in sociodemographic, drug use, and sexual behaviors by gender, both male and female injectors in Dar es Salaam exhibit elevated risk of HIV infection associated with drug use.

Keywords

Sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania Injection drug users Needle sharing Sex risks