Aerobiologia

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 411–419

Presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in rainwater suggests aerial dispersal is possible

  • Jonathan E. Kolby
  • Sara D. Ramirez
  • Lee Berger
  • Dale W. Griffin
  • Merlijn Jocque
  • Lee F. Skerratt
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10453-015-9374-6

Cite this article as:
Kolby, J.E., Ramirez, S.D., Berger, L. et al. Aerobiologia (2015) 31: 411. doi:10.1007/s10453-015-9374-6

Abstract

Global spread of the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) may involve dispersal mechanisms not previously explored. Weather systems accompanied by strong wind and rainfall have been known to assist the dispersal of microbes pathogenic to plants and animals, and we considered a similar phenomenon might occur with Bd. We investigated this concept by sampling rainwater from 20 precipitation events for the presence of Bd in Cusuco National Park, Honduras: a site where high Bd prevalence was previously detected in stream-associated amphibians. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the presence of Bd in rainwater in one (5 %) of the weather events sampled, although viability cannot be ascertained from molecular presence alone. The source of the Bd and distance that the contaminated rainwater traveled could not be determined; however, this collection site was located approximately 600 m from the nearest observed perennial river by straight-line aerial distance. Although our results suggest atmospheric Bd dispersal is uncommon and unpredictable, even occasional short-distance aerial transport could considerably expand the taxonomic diversity of amphibians vulnerable to exposure and at risk of decline, including terrestrial and arboreal species that are not associated with permanent water bodies.

Keywords

Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Chytridiomycosis Dispersal Atmospheric Rain 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan E. Kolby
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sara D. Ramirez
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lee Berger
    • 1
  • Dale W. Griffin
    • 4
  • Merlijn Jocque
    • 2
    • 5
  • Lee F. Skerratt
    • 1
  1. 1.One Health Research Group, College of Public Health, Medical, and Veterinary SciencesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Operation WallaceaLincolnshireUK
  3. 3.Sustainability StudiesRamapo College of New JerseyMahwahUSA
  4. 4.Center for Coastal Geology and Regional Marine StudiesUnited States Geological SurveySt. PetersburgUSA
  5. 5.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural SciencesBrusselsBelgium