Transport of microorganisms to Israel during Saharan dust events
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Dust storms are serious meteorological events that affect the East Mediterranean region, primarily during the spring season. The physical and chemical nature of dust storms, their origin, and the meteorological conditions leading to the generation of storms have been fully documented, but knowledge on their biological content is almost nonexistent. Four dust events that occurred in the period 2004–2005 were sampled in Haifa, Israel, an urban area on the East Mediterranean coast, for biological characterization. Samples were taken before or after (depending on the meteorological conditions) as well as during the dust events. Dust particles were collected as two size fractions using a dichotomous sampler, and their elemental content was determined using X-ray fluorescence analyses. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected with the Six Stage Andersen Viable Impactor. Fungi were identified by optical microscopy. Compared to adjacent clear days, there was an increase in the concentration of both atmospheric particles and elements of geological and marine origin during the dust events. The concentration of airborne microorganisms during the dust events was also higher, and the fungal population content was affected. On a winter clear day the abundant airborne fungi were Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium glabrum, and Alternaria alternata. On a spring clear day, the persisting airborne fungi were Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and P. glabrum. However, during two dust events the fungal population was dominated by Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. thomii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum, and P. griseoroseum. This study suggests that Saharan and other desert dust events in the East Mediterranean have a significant effect on the airborne microbial populations, which might impact on health, agriculture, and ecology.
- Abdel-Hafez, S. I., Moubasher, A. H., & Barakat, A. (1993). Seasonal variations of fungi of outdoor air and sedimented dust at Assiut region, Upper Egypt. Grana, 32, 115–121. CrossRef
- Alpert, P., & Ganor, E. (2001). Sahara mineral dust measurements from TOMS: Comparison to surface observations over the Middle East for the extreme dust storm, March 14–17, 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 18275–18286. CrossRef
- Alpert, P., Krichak, S. O., Tsidulko, M., Shafir, H., & Joseph, J. H. (2002). A dust prediction system with TOMS initialization. Monthly Weather Review, 130, 2335–2345. CrossRef
- Andersen, A. A. (1958). New sampler for the collection, sizing and enumeration of viable airborne particles. The Journal of Bacteriology, 76, 471–484.
- Barkai-Golan, R., & Glazer, I. (1962). Air-borne fungi in Eilat and Tel-Hashomer. Journal of Allergy, 33, 342–348. CrossRef
- Barkai-Golan, R., Frank, M., Kantor, D., Karadavid, R., & Toshner, D. (1977). Atmospheric fungi in desert town of Arad and in coastal-plain of Israel. Annals of Allergy, 38, 270–274.
- Chow, J. C. (1995). Measurement methods to determine compliance with ambient air – quality standards for suspended particles. The Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 45, 320–382.
- DiGiorgio, C., Krempff, A., Guiraud, H., Binder, P., Tiret, C., & Dumenil, G. (1996). Atmospheric pollution by airborne microorganisms in the city of Marseilles. Atmospheric Environment, 30, 155–160. CrossRef
- Draxler, R. R., & Hess, G. D. (1998). An overview of the Hysplit_4 modeling system for trajectories, dispersion, and deposition. Australian Meteorological Magazine, 47, 295–308.
- Erel, Y., Dayan, U., Rabi, R., Rudich, Y., & Stein, M. (2006). Trans boundary transport of pollutants by atmospheric mineral dust. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 2996–3005. CrossRef
- Falkovich, A. H., Ganor, E., Levin, Z., Formenti, P., & Rudich, Y. (2001). Chemical and mineralogical analysis of individual mineral dust particles. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 18029–18036. CrossRef
- Ganor, E., & Foner, H. A. (1996). The mineralogical and chemical properties and the behavior of aeolian Saharan dust over Israel. In S. Guerzoni, & R. Chester (Eds.), The impact of desert dust across the Mediterranean (pp. 163–172). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Goudie, A. S., & Middleton, N. J. (2001). Saharan dust storms: Nature and consequences. Earth-Science Reviews, 56, 179–204. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W., Garrison, V. H., Herman, J. R., & Shinn, E. A. (2001). African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia, 17, 203–213. CrossRef
- Griffin, D. W., Kellogg, C. A., Garrison, V. H., Lisle, J. T., Borden, T. C., & Shinn, E. A. (2003). Atmospheric microbiology in the northern Caribbean during African dust events. Aerobiologia, 19, 143–157. CrossRef
- Grishkan, I. Nevo, E. Wasser, S. P., & Beharav, A. (2003). Adaptive spatiotemporal distribution of soil microfungi in “Evolution Canyon” II, Lower Nahal Keziv, western Upper Galille, Israel. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 78, 527–539. CrossRef
- Ismail, M., Abdel-Hafez, S., & Moharram, A. (2002). Aeromycobiota of Western Desert of Egypt. African Journal of Science and Technology, 3, 1–9.
- Krebs, C. J. (1989). Ecological methodology. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
- Loo, B. W., & Cork, C. P. (1988). Development of high efficiency virtual impactors. Aerosol Science and Technology, 9, 167–176.
- Macher, J. (Ed.) (1999). Bioaerosol assessment and control. Cincinnati, OH: American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
- Mamane, Y., & Ganor, E. (1981). Transport and dust deposition of Saharan dust in the East-Mediterranean. In H. Shuval (Ed.), Developments in arid zone ecology and environmental quality (pp. 363–369). Philadelphia, PA: Balaban ISS.
- Mamane, Y., Ganor, E., & Donagi, A. E. (1982). Aerosol composition of urban and desert origin in the eastern Mediterranean. 2. Deposition of large particles. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 18, 475–484. CrossRef
- Mims, S. A., & Mims, F. M. (2004). Fungal spores are transported long distances in smoke from biomass fires. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 651–655. CrossRef
- Moulin, C., Lambert, C., Dulac, F., & Dayan, U. (1997). Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature, 387, 691–694. CrossRef
- Nickovic, S., Kallos, O., Kakaliagou, O., & Jovic, D. (1997). Aerosol production/deposition processes in the Eta model: Desert cycle simulations. Preprints, Proc. Symp. on Regional Weather Prediction on Parallel Computer Environments (pp. 137–145). Athens, Greece.
- Prodi, F., & Fea, G. (1979). A case of transport and deposition of Saharan dust over the Italian Peninsula and Southern Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 6951–6960. CrossRef
- Prospero, J. M., Ginoux, P., Torres, O., Nicholson, S. E., & Gill, T. E. (2002). Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product. Reviews of Geophysics, 40, 212–231. CrossRef
- Razak, A. A., Bachmann, G., Ali, T. M., & Farrag, R. (1999). Activities of microflora in soils of Upper and Lower Egypt. African Journal of Mycology and Biotechnology, 7, 1–19.
- Shinn, E. A., Smith, G. W., Prospero, J. M., Betzer, P., Hayes, M. L., Garrison, V., & Barber, R. T. (2000). African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3029–3032. CrossRef
- Volz, P., Ellanskaya, I. A., Grishkan, I., Wasser, S. P., & Nevo, E. (2001). Soil microfungi of Israel. Ruggell: Ganter Verlag K.-G.
- Waisel, Y., Ganor, E., Glickman, M., Epstein, V., & Brener, S. (1997). Airborne fungal spores in the coastal plain of Israel: A preliminary survey. Aerobiologia, 13, 281–287.
- Wu, P. C., Tsai, J. C., Li, F. C., Lung, S. C., & Su, H. J. (2004). Increased levels of ambient fungal spores in Taiwan are associated with dust events from China. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 4879–4886. CrossRef
- Yeo, H. G., & Kim, J. H. (2002). SPM and fungal spores in the ambient air of west Korea during the Asian dust (Yellow sand) period. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 5437–5442. CrossRef
- Transport of microorganisms to Israel during Saharan dust events
Volume 22, Issue 4 , pp 259-273
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Airborne microorganisms
- Dichotomous sampler
- Eastern Mediterranean
- Elemental contents
- Particulate matter
- Saharan dust
- Six Stage Andersen Viable Impactor