Does shisha smoking affect blood pressure and heart rate?
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- Al-Safi, S.A., Ayoub, N.M., Albalas, M.A. et al. J Public Health (2009) 17: 121. doi:10.1007/s10389-008-0220-y
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The aim of this investigation was to explore the correlation of shisha smoking with blood pressure and heart rate values.
Subjects and methods
This is a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study involving a total of 14,310 adults selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in outpatient settings. The frequencies of water-pipe-smoking males and females in the sample were 21.11% and 10.27%, respectively. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate values were carried out in outpatient settings. For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured three times with 10–15-min intervals in the sitting position and at the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP.
Smokers had significantly higher blood pressure and heart rate values than non-smokers. Both smokers and non-smokers with a positive family history of hypertension had significantly higher values of blood pressure than those with a negative family history.
A significant elevation of blood pressure and heart rate was observed among shisha smokers. Current cigarette smoking associated with frequent water pipe smoking resulted in greater elevation in blood pressure measurements among both types of tobacco smokers.