, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 90-107

Current status and perspective of antiangiogenic therapy for cancer: urinary cancer

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Abstract

Angiogenesis is considered a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Antiangiogenic therapy reduces tumor size and extends host survival in a number of preclinical animal models. However, in humans antiangiogenic therapy is a poor promoter of tumor regression and has shown minimal effect on patient survival. In urinary cancers, such as renal cell cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer, advanced refractory disease is a good candidate for antiangiogenic therapy because of its resistance to ordinary chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy. Unique characteristics of molecular mechanisms underlie the induction of angiogenesis in urinary cancers. In this review, we summarize these unique mechanisms and review the results of clinical trials of antiangiogenic therapy for these cancers, discussing prospects and problems relating to antiangiogenic therapy.