Original Article

Virtual Reality

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 107-113

First online:

The incorporation of challenge enhances the learning of chronology from a virtual display

  • Nigel ForemanAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Middlesex University Email author 
  • , Liliya KoralloAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Middlesex University
  • , David NewsonAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Middlesex University
  • , Natalie SarantosAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Middlesex University

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In earlier studies investigating the learning of historical chronology, virtual fly-throughs were used in which successive historical events were represented by images on virtual screens, placed in temporal-spatial sequence. Undergraduate students benefited more than school-age children from virtual 3D (compared to 2D) training, perhaps because they took on the task as a challenge. In this study a modification of the earlier paradigm was used, in a game-like format, in which successive screens (paintings, representing epochs of art history) had to be memorised and anticipated during training, the participant’s score accumulating on the screen. Compared with PowerPoint and verbal-semantic training conditions, VE training resulted in more rapid learning, better recall of associated semantic information and error-free recall of the picture sequence. Possible applications of this paradigm for teaching were discussed.


Chronology Art history Virtual environment Game format Undergraduates