Anderson RC. 1990. The historic role of fire in the North American grassland. Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. Norman (OK): University of Oklahoma Press. pp 8–18.
Arca B, Duce P, Laconi M, Pellizzaro G, Salis M, Spano D. 2007. Evaluation of FARSITE simulator in Mediterranean maquis. Int J Wildland Fire 16:563–72.CrossRef
Barnes TG. 2004. Strategies to convert exotic grass pastures to tall grass prairie communities. Weed Technol 18:1364–70.CrossRef
Bidwell TG, Engle DM. 1992. Relationship of fire behavior to tallgrass prairie herbage production. J Range Manag 45:579–84.CrossRef
Bond W, Keeley J. 2005. Fire as a global “herbivore”: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 20:387–94.PubMedCrossRef
Bowman DMJS, Balch JK, Artaxo P, Bond WJ, Carlson JM, Cochrane MA, Cochrane MA, D’Antonio CM, DeFries RS, Doyle JC, Harrison SP et al. 2009. Fire in the earth system. Science 324:481–4.PubMedCrossRef
Bradstock RA, Kenny BJ. 2003. An application of plant functional types to fire management in a conservation reserve in southeastern Australia. J Veg Sci 14:345–54.CrossRef
Brooks ML. 2008. Plant invasions and fire regimes. General technical report RMRS-GTR-42, vol 6. Ogden (UT): United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 355 pp.
Brooks ML, Antonio CMD, Richardson DM, Grace JB, Keeley J, DiTomaso JM, Hobbs RJ, Pellant M, Pyke D. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54:677–88.CrossRef
Burgan RE. 1979. Estimating live fuel moisture for the 1978 National Fire Danger Rating System. INT-226. Ogden (UT): United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 22 pp.
Burnham KP, Anderson DR. 2002. Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. New York: Springer.
Butler BW, Finney MA, Andrews PL, Albini FA. 2004. A radiation-driven model for crown fire spread. Can J For Res 34:1588–99.CrossRef
D’Antonio CM. 2000. Fire, plant invasions, and global changes. In: Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ, Eds. Invasive species in a changing world. Washington (DC): Island Press. p 65–93.
D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23:63–87.
Davidson J. 1996. Livestock grazing in wildland fuel management programs. Rangelands 18:242–5.
Davies KW, Bates JD, Svejcar TJ, Boyd CS. 2010. Effects of long-term livestock grazing on fuel characteristics in rangelands: an example from the sagebrush steppe. Rangel Ecol Manag 63:662–9.CrossRef
Davies KW, Svejcar TJ, Bates JD. 2009. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities. Ecol Appl 19:1536–45.PubMedCrossRef
Diez JM, Pulliam HR. 2007. Hierarchical analysis of species distributions and abundance across environmental gradients. Ecology 88:3144–52.PubMedCrossRef
DiTomaso JM, Brooks ML, Allen EB, Minnich R, Rice PM, Kyser GB. 2006. Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning. Weed Technol 20:535–48.CrossRef
Duguy B, Alloza JA, Röder A, Vallejo R, Pastor F. 2007. Modelling the effects of landscape fuel treatments on fire growth and behaviour in a Mediterranean landscape (eastern Spain). Int J Wildland Fire 16:619–32.CrossRef
Enders CK, Tofighi D. 2007. Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue. Psychol Methods 12:121–38.PubMedCrossRef
Engle DM, Bidwell TG. 2001. Viewpoint: the response of central North American prairies to seasonal fire. J Range Manag 54:2–10.CrossRef
Fernandes PM, Botelho HS. 2003. A review of prescribed burning effectiveness in fire hazard reduction. Int J Wildland Fire 12:117–28.CrossRef
Finney MA. 2004. FARSITE: Fire area simulator—Model development and evaluation. Research paper RMRS-RP-4 revised. Fort Collins (CO): United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 52 pp.
Finney MA. 2003. Calculation of fire spread rates across random landscapes. Int J Wildland Fire 12:167–74.CrossRef
Finney MA, Andrews PL. 1999. FARSITE—a program for fire growth simulation. Fire Manag Notes 59:13–15.
Flannigan MD, Krawchuk MA, de Groot WJ, Wotton BM, Gowman LM. 2009. Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire. Int J Wildland Fire 18:483–507.CrossRef
Gillen RL, Tate KW. 1993. The constituent differential method for determining live and dead herbage. J Range Manag 46:142–7.CrossRef
Grace JB, Smith MD, Grace SL, Collins SL, Stohlgren TJ. 2001. Interactions between fire and invasive plants in temperate grasslands of North America. In: Proceedings of the invasive species workshop: the role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species. Fire conference 2000: the First National Congress on Fire Ecology, Prevention, and Management. Tallahassee (FL): Tall Timbers Research Station. pp 40–65.
Hanson HP, Bradley MM, Bossert JE, Linn RR, Younker LW. 2000. The potential and promise of physics-based wildfire simulation. Environ Sci Policy 3:161–72.CrossRef
Harrell WC, Fuhlendorf SD. 2002. Evaluation of habitat structural measures in a shrubland community. J Range Manag 55:488–93.CrossRef
Heyerdahl EK, Brubaker LB, Agee JK. 2001. Spatial controls of historical fire regimes: a multiscale example from the Interior West, USA. Ecology 82:660–78.CrossRef
Higgins KF. 1986. Interpretation and compendium of historical fire accounts in the Northern Great Plains, vol 161. Washington (DC): US Fish and Wildlife Service. 39 pp.
Jolly WM. 2007. Sensitivity of a surface fire spread model and associated fire behaviour fuel models to changes in live fuel moisture. Int J Wildland Fire 16:503–9.CrossRef
Kerby JD, Fuhlendorf SD, Engle DM. 2007. Landscape heterogeneity and fire behavior: scale-dependent feedback between fire and grazing processes. Landsc Ecol 22:507–16.CrossRef
Krawchuk MA, Moritz MA, Parisien M-A, Van Dorn J, Hayhoe K. 2009. Global pyrogeography: the current and future distribution of wildfire. PLoS ONE 4:e5102.PubMedCrossRef
Leonard S, Kirkpatrick J, Marsden-Smedley J. 2010. Variation in the effects of vertebrate grazing on fire potential between grassland structural types. J Appl Ecol 47:876–83.CrossRef
Limb RF, Hickman KR, Engle DM, Norland JE, Fuhlendorf SD. 2007. Digital photography: reduced investigator variation in visual obstruction measurements for southern tallgrass prairie. Rangel Ecol Manag 60:548–52.CrossRef
Mack MC, D’Antonio CM. 1998. Impacts of biological invasions on disturbance regimes. Trends Ecol Evol 13:195–8.PubMedCrossRef
Madison LA, Barnes TG, Sole JD. 2001. Effectiveness of fire, disking, and herbicide to renovate tall fescue fields to Northern Bobwhite habitat. Wildl Soc Bull 29:706–12.
McGranahan DA. 2008. Degradation and restoration in remnant tallgrass prairie: grazing history, soil carbon, and invasive species affect community composition and response to the fire-grazing interaction. Thesis. Ames (IA): Iowa State University. 57 pp.
McGranahan DA, Engle DM, Fuhlendorf SD, Miller JR, Debinski DM. 2012a. An invasive cool-season grass complicates prescribed fire management in a native warm-season grassland. Nat Areas J 32:208–14.CrossRef
McGranahan DA, Engle DM, Fuhlendorf SD, Winter SJ, Miller JR, Debinski DM. 2012b. Spatial heterogeneity across five rangelands managed with pyric-herbivory. J Appl Ecol 49:903–10.CrossRef
Miller JD, Yool SR. 2002. Modeling fire in semi-desert grassland/oak woodland: the spatial implications. Ecol Model 153:229–45.CrossRef
Mutlu M, Popescu SC, Zhao K. 2008. Sensitivity analysis of fire behavior modeling with LIDAR-derived surface fuel maps. For Ecol Manage 256:289–94.CrossRef
Parisien M-A, Miller C, Ager AA, Finney MA. 2010. Use of artificial landscapes to isolate controls on burn probability. Landsc Ecol 25:79–93.CrossRef
Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team. 2011. nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/nlme/index.html
. Accessed 22 May 2011.
Pyke DA, Brooks ML, D’Antonio C. 2010. Fire as a restoration tool: a decision framework for predicting the control or enhancement of plants using fire. Restor Ecol 18:274–84.CrossRef
Pyne SJ, Andrews PL, Laven RD. 1996. Introduction to wildland fire. New York: Wiley. p 769 pps.
R Development Core Team. 2011. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Raudenbush SW, Bryk AS. 2002. Hierarchical linear models: applications and data analysis methods. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications, Inc.
Rhoades C, Barnes T, Washburn B. 2002. Prescribed fire and herbicide effects on soil processes during barrens restoration. Restor Ecol 10:656–64.CrossRef
Ribeiro PJ, Diggle PJ. 2011. geoR: analysis of geostatistical data. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/geoR/geoR.pdf
. Accessed 22 May 2011.
Richards GD. 1990. An elliptical growth model of forest fire fronts and its numerical solution. Int J Numer Methods Eng 30:1163–79.CrossRef
Robel RJ, Briggs JN, Dayton AD, Hulbert LC. 1970. Relationships between visual obstruction measurements and weight of grassland vegetation. J Range Manag 23:295–7.CrossRef
Rothermel RC. 1983. How to predict the spread and intensity of forest and range fires. General technical report INT-143. Ogden (UT): United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 161 pp.
Rothermel RC. 1972. A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wildland fuels. Research paper INT-115. Ogden (UT): United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 49 pp.
Scott JH, Burgan RE. 2005. Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel’s surface fire spread model. General technical report RMRS-GTR-153. Fort Collins (CO): United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 66 pp.
Sparks JC, Masters RE, Engle DM, Bukenhofer GA, Payton ME. 2007. Comparison of BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system predictions with observed fire behavior varying by season and frequency. In: Proceedings of the 23rd tall timbers fire ecology conference: fire in grassland and shrubland ecosystems. Tallahassee (FL): Tall Timbers Research Station. pp 170–180.
Stevens JT, Beckage B. 2009. Fire feedbacks facilitate invasion of pine savannas by Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius
). New Phytol 184:365–75.PubMedCrossRef
Towne EG, Kemp KE. 2008. Long-term response patterns of tallgrass prairie to frequent summer burning. Rangel Ecol Manag 61:509–20.CrossRef
Twidwell D, Fuhlendorf SD, Engle DM, Taylor CA. 2009. Surface fuel sampling strategies: linking fuel measurements and fire effects. Rangel Ecol Manag 62:223–9.CrossRef
USDA-NRCS. 2010. Web soil survey data for Ringgold County, Iowa. Natural Resource Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov
. Accessed 25 Feb 2011.
Vermeire LT, Ganguli AC, Gillen RL. 2002. A robust model for estimating standing crop across vegetation types. J Range Manag 55:494–7.CrossRef
Walther G-R, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesank C, Beebee TJC, Fromentin J-M, Hoegh-Guildberg O, Bairlein F. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389–95.PubMedCrossRef
Washburn BE, Barnes TG, Sole JD. 1999. No-till establishment of native warm-season grasses in tall fescue fields. Ecol Restor 17:144–9.
Weir JR. 2011. Are weather and tradition reducing our ability to conduct prescribed burns? Rangelands 33:25–30.CrossRef
Whitlock C, Higuera PE, McWethy DB, Briles CE. 2010. Paleoecological perspectives on fire ecology: revisiting the fire-regime concept. Open Ecol J 3:6–23.CrossRef
van Wilgren BW, Richardson DM. 1985. The effects of alien shrub invasions on vegetation structure and fire behaviour in South African fynbos shrublands: a simulation study. J Appl Ecol 22:955–66.CrossRef