Relation between morphology and conductivity in TiO2 nanotube arrays: an electrochemical impedance spectrometric investigation
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- Pu, P., Cachet, H., Ngaboyamahina, E. et al. J Solid State Electrochem (2013) 17: 817. doi:10.1007/s10008-012-1931-0
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Two types of TiO2 nanotubular arrays were obtained by anodisation of a titanium foil, in two different solutions containing fluoride ions. For the first type which has rough tube walls, impedance measurements in the dark showed the presence of a localised surface state which was related to adsorbed molecular water. Under UV illumination, this adsorbed molecular water was photo-dissociated. Moreover, an increase of 2 orders of magnitude for the limiting capacitance of the space charge layer was observed, simultaneously with the disappearance of the localised state and with a 100-time increase of the carrier density associated with hydrogen insertion. The second type of layer was characterised by smoother tube walls, a high doping level (1020 cm−3) in the dark, a lack of localised states and no long-lasting photo-induced effect. In this case, the width of the space charge layer became rapidly higher than the half-thickness of the tube walls, when the applied potential increased. Therefore, the walls were progressively depleted under anodic polarisation, passing from a situation where the tubes were totally active in the cathodic range towards a situation where the contribution of the tube walls could be neglected.