Original Paper

Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 775-784

First online:

A voltammetric sensor based on graphene-modified electrode for the determination of trace amounts of l-dopa in mouse brain extract and pharmaceuticals

  • Majid ArvandAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan Email author 
  • , Navid GhodsiAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan

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l-Dopa is the intermediate precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Unlike dopamine, l-dopa easily enters the central nervous system. l-Dopa, as one of the catecholamines, is widely used as a source of dopamine in the treatment of most patients with Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. Graphene (GR) is ideally suited for implementation in electrochemical applications due to its reported large electrical conductivity, large surface area, unique heterogeneous electron transfer rate, and low production costs. This work reports the synthesis of GR using a modified Brodie method and its application for the electrochemical determination of l-dopa in real samples. Electrochemical measurements were performed at glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene (GR/GCE) via drop casting method. Cyclic voltammograms of l-dopa at GR/GCE showed an increased current intensity compared with GCE. All the measurements were done in phosphate buffer solution 0.1 M (pH 6.2) and the oxidation peak was observed at 0.27 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effect of scan rate showed that oxidation of l-dopa on GR/GCE was surface controlled. The oxidation peak current of l-dopa gradually increased with increasing accumulation time from 0 to 300 s and accumulation potential from 0.0 to 0.3 V and reached the maximum current response at 240 s and 0.2 V for the accumulation time and accumulation potential, respectively. Voltammetric peak currents showed a linear response for l-dopa concentration in the range of 0.04 to 79 μM and a detection limit of 0.022 μM (22 nM). The relative standard deviation for five determinations of 50 μM l-dopa was 0.52 %.


Glassy carbon electrode Graphene l-Dopa Modified Brodie method Surface controlled