Original Article

Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 1-10

The impact of subjective birth experiences on post-traumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal study

  • Susan Garthus-NiegelAffiliated withDepartment of Psychosomatics and Health Behaviour, Norwegian Institute of Public HealthHealth Services Research Centre, Akershus University Hospital Email author 
  • , Tilmann von SoestAffiliated withInstitute of Psychology, University of Oslo
  • , Margarete E. VollrathAffiliated withDepartment of Psychosomatics and Health Behaviour, Norwegian Institute of Public HealthInstitute of Psychology, University of Oslo
  • , Malin Eberhard-GranAffiliated withDepartment of Psychosomatics and Health Behaviour, Norwegian Institute of Public HealthHealth Services Research Centre, Akershus University Hospital

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Abstract

The aim of this prospective study was to examine the etiology of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth within a transactional framework of stress. Participants were women (N = 1,499) from the Akershus Birth Cohort. These women were followed from pregnancy to 8 weeks postpartum. We modeled predisposing factors (e.g., fear of childbirth) and precipitating factors (subjective and objective birth experiences) as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by means of the Impact of Event Scale, objective birth experiences by means of birth journals, and subjective birth experiences by means of three questions. A structural equation model showed that subjective birth experiences had the highest association with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, they mediated the effect of predisposing factors and objective birth experiences. The results suggest that women’s subjective birth experiences are the most important factor in the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth.

Keywords

Post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth Predisposing factors Precipitating factors Subjective birth experiences Akershus Birth Cohort