Prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in a private setting sample
First Online: 28 December 2006 Received: 03 January 2006 Accepted: 28 November 2006 DOI:
Cite this article as: Faisal-Cury, A. & Rossi Menezes, P. Arch Womens Ment Health (2007) 10: 25. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0164-6 Summary Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for antenatal anxiety (AA) and antenatal depression (AD). Methods: We performed a cross sectional study of 432 women attending a private clinic in the city of Osasco, São Paulo, from 5/27/1998 to 5/13/2002. The following instruments were used: Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and a questionnaire for socio-demographic and obstetric data. Inclusion criteria were: pregnant women with no past or present history of depression, psychiatric treatment, alcohol or drug abuse and no clinical and obstetric complications. The prevalence of AA, according to STAI, and AD, according to Beck Inventory, were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Odds ratios and 95% CI were used to examine the association between AA and AD and exposures variables. Results: The prevalence of AA, state and trait were 59.5 (95 CI%: 54.8:64.1%) and 45.3% (95% CI: 40.6:50.0), respectively. The prevalence of AD was 19.6 (95% CI:15.9:23.4). In the multivariate analysis, AA-trait (OR: 5.26; 95% CI 2.17:12.5, p < 0.001), AA-state (OR: 2.27; 95% CI 1.08:4.76, p = 0.02) and AD (OR: 2.43; 95% CI 1.40:4.34, p = 0.002) were associated with lower women’s educational level. AA-trait (OR: 3.43; 95% CI 1.68:7.00, p = 0.001), AA-state (OR: 2.22; CI 95% 1.09:4.53, p = 0.02) and AD (OR: 2.82; CI 95% 1.35:5.97, p = 0.005) were also associated with not being married. AA-trait was associated with lower women’s income (OR: 2.22; 95% CI 0.98:5.26, p = 0.05) and not being white (OR: 1.7; 95% CI 1.00:2.91, p = 0.04), while AD was associated with lower couple’s income (OR: 2.43; 95% CI 1.40:4.34, p = 0.001) and greater number of previous abortions (OR: 2.21; 95% CI 1.23:3.97, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Prevalence of AA and AD were high in this sample of women attending a private care setting, particularly AA state and trace. AA and AD were associated with similar socio-demographic and socio-economic risk factors, suggesting some common environmental stressors may be involved. Keywords: Antenatal anxiety; antenatal depression; prevalence; risk factors; screening. References Anderson, L, Sundstrom-Poromma, I, Wuff, M, Astrom, M, Bixo, M 2004 Implications of antenatal depression and anxiety for obstetric outcomes Obstet Gynecol 104 476 Google Scholar Andrade, L, Gorenstein, C, Vieira Filho, AH, Tung, TC, Artes, R 2001 Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory applied to college students: factor analysis and relation to the Beck depression inventory Braz J Med Biol Res 34 367 374 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Ayers, S 2001 Assessing psychopathology in pregnancy and postpartum J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 22 91 102 Google Scholar Beck, AT, Ward, CH, Mendelson, M, Mock, J, Erbaugh, G 1961 An inventory for measuring depression Arch Gen Psychiatry 4 561 571 PubMed Google Scholar Beck, AT, Steer, RA, Garbin, MG 1988 Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation Clin Psych Rev 8 77 100 CrossRef Google Scholar Benett, HA, Einarson, A, Taddio, A, Koren, G, Einarson, TR 2004 Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review Obstet Gynecol 103 698 709 Google Scholar
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