Multicentre prospective study of perinatal depression in Japan: incidence and correlates of antenatal and postnatal depression
First Online: 20 March 2006 Received: 10 November 2004 Accepted: 03 February 2006 DOI:
Cite this article as: Kitamura, T., Yoshida, K., Okano, T. et al. Arch Womens Ment Health (2006) 9: 121. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0122-3 Summary
A multicentre study on the epidemiology of perinatal depression was conducted among Japanese women expecting the first baby (N = 290). The incidence rate of the onset of the DSM-III-R Major Depressive Episode during pregnancy (antenatal depression) and within 3 months after delivery (postnatal depression) were 5.6% and 5.0%, respectively. Women with antenatal depression were characterised by young age and negative attitude towards the current pregnancy, whereas women with postnatal depression were characterised by poor accommodation, dissatisfaction with sex of the newborn baby and with the emotional undermining. Antenatal depression was a major risk factor for postnatal depression.
Keywords: Antenatal depression; postnatal depression; epidemiology. References
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. revised), American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C.
Areias, MEG, Kumar, R, Barros, H, Figueiredo, E 1996 Comparative incidence of depression in women and men, during pregnancy and after childbirth: validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in Portuguese mothers Br J Psychiatry 169 30 35 PubMed Google Scholar Asten, P Marks, MN Oates, MR and the TCS-PND Group 2004 Aims, measures, study sites and participant samples of the Transcultural Study of Postnatal Depression Br J Psychiatry 184 3 9 CrossRef Google Scholar Austin, M-P, Lumley, J 2002 Antenatal screening for postnatal depression. A systematic review Acta Psychiatry Scand 107 10 17 CrossRef Google Scholar Barrera, M 1986 Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models Am J Commun Psychol 14 413 445 CrossRef Google Scholar Bernazzani, O, Saucier, J-F, David, H, Borgeat, F 1997 Psychosocial factors related to emotional disturbances during pregnancy J Psychosom Res 42 391 402 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Booth, A, Cowell, J 1976 Crowding and health J Health Soc Behav 17 204 220 PubMed Google Scholar Brown, GW, Harris, T, Copeland, JR 1987 Depression and loss Br J Psychiatry 130 1 18 Google Scholar Brugha, T, Bebbington, P, Tennant, C, Hurry, J 1985 The list of threatening experiences. A subset of 12 life event categories with considerable long-term contextual threat Psychol Med 15 189 194 PubMed Google Scholar Brugha, TS, Wheatley, S, Taub, NA, Culverwell, A, Friedman, T, Kirwan, P, Jones, DR, Shapiro, DA 2000 Pragmatic randomized trial of antenatal intervention to prevent post-natal depression by reducing psychosocial risk factors Psychol Med 30 1273 1281 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Buist, A, Westley, D, Hill, C 1999 Antenatal prevention of postnatal depression Arch Womens Ment Health 1 167 173 CrossRef Google Scholar Burg, MM, Seeman, TE 1994 Families and health: the negative side of social ties Ann Behav Med 16 109 115 Google Scholar Cohen, J 1960 A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales Educational and Psychological Assessment 20 37 46 Google Scholar Cooper, P, Murray, L 1998 Postnatal depression BMJ 316 1884 1886 PubMed Google Scholar Cooper, PJ, Murray, L, Hooper, R, West, A 1996 The development and validation of a predictive index for postpartum depression Psychol Med 26 627 634 PubMed Google Scholar Crowne, DP, Marlowe, D 1960 A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology J Consul Psychol 24 349 354 Google Scholar Cutrona, CE 1983 Causal attributions and perinatal depression J Abnorm Psychol 92 161 172 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Endicott, J, Spitzer, RL 1978 A diagnostic interview: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Arch Gen Psychiatry 35 837 844 PubMed Google Scholar Folkman, S, Lazarus, RS 1980 An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample J Health Soc Behav 21 219 239 PubMed Google Scholar Hobfoll, SE, Ritter, C, Lavin, J, Hulsizer, MR, Cameron, RP 1995 Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women J Consult Clin Psychol 63 445 453 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Inomata, T 1994 Utsubyou sei shougai no keika to haiguusha karano sapouto ni tuite [The impact of a spouse on the course of depressive disorders] Keio Igaku 71 355 371 Google Scholar Jané-Llopis, E, Hosman, C, Jenkins, R, Anderson, P 2003 Predictors of efficacy in depression programmes Br J Psychiatry 183 384 397 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Kellet, J 1989 Health and housing J Psychosom Res 33 255 268 CrossRef Google Scholar Kendler, KS, Kessler, RC, Heath, AC, Neale, MC, Eaves, LJ 1991 Coping: a genetic epidemiological investigation Psychol Med 21 337 346 PubMed Google Scholar Kishida, Y 2001 Anxiety in Japanese women after elective abortion J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs 30 490 495 Google Scholar Kitamura, T, Shima, S, Sugawara, M, Toda, M 1993 Psychological and social correlates of the onset of affective disorders among pregnant women Psychol Med 23 967 975 PubMed Google Scholar Kitamura, T, Shima, S, Sugawara, M, Toda, MA 1996a Clinical and psychosocial correlates of antenatal depression: a review Psychother Psychosom 65 117 123 CrossRef Google Scholar Kitamura, T, Sugawara, M, Sugawara, K, Toda, MA, Shima, S 1996b Psychosocial study of depression in early pregnancy Br J Psychiatry 168 732 738 CrossRef Google Scholar Kitamura, T, Suzuki, T 1986 Japanese version of Social Desirability Scale Jap J Soc Psychiatry 9 173 180 Google Scholar Kitamura, T, Suzuki, T 1993 A validation study of the Parental Bonding Instrument in a Japanese population Jap J Psychiat Neurol 47 29 36 Google Scholar Kumar, R 1982 Neurotic disorders in childbearing women Brockington, IF Kumar, R eds. Motherhood and mental illness Academic Press London 71 118 Google Scholar Kumar, R, Robson, KM 1984 A prospective study of emotional disorders in childbearing women Br J Psychiatry 144 35 47 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Lakey, B, Tardiff, TA, Drew, JB 1994 Negative social interactions: assessment and relations to social support, cognition, and psychological distress J Soc Clin Psychol 13 42 62 Google Scholar Lepore, SJ 1992 Social conflict, social support, and psychological distress: evidence of cross-domain buffering effects J Person Soc Psychol 63 857 867 CrossRef Google Scholar Magaziner, J 1988 Living density and psychopathology. A reexamination of the negative model Psychol Med 18 419 431 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Major, B, Cozzarelli, C, Cooper, ML, Zubek, J, Richards, C, Wilhite, M, Gramzow, RH 2000 Psychological responses of women after first-trimester abortion Arch Gen Psychiatry 57 777 784 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Major, B, Richards, C, Cooper, ML, Cozzarelli, C, Zubek, J 1998 Personal resilience, cognitive, appraisal, and coping: an integrative model of adjustment to abortion J Pers Soc Psychol 74 735 752 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Murrray, L, Cooper, PJ 1997Postpartum depression and child development Guilford New York Google Scholar O’Connor, TG, Heron, J, Golding, J, Beveridge, M, Glover, V 2002 Maternal antenatal anxiety and children’s behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years Br J Psychiatry 180 502 508 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar O’Connor, TG, Heron, J, Golding, J, Beveridge, M, Glover, V 2003 Maternal antenatal anxiety and behavioural/emotional problems in children: a test of a programming hypothesis J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44 1025 1036 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar O’Hara, MW, Neuaber, DJ, Zekoski, EM 1984 A prospective study of postpartum depression: prevalence, course, and predictive factors J Abnorm Psychol 93 158 171 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar O’Hara, MW, Swain, AM 1996 Rates and risk of postpartum depression: a meta-analysis Intern Review Psychiatry 8 37 54 Google Scholar O’Hara, MW, Zekoski, EM 1988 Postpartum depression. A comprehensive review Kumar, R Brockington, IF eds. Motherhood and mental illness Academic Press London Google Scholar Parker, G 1981 Parental representations of patients with anxiety neurosis Acta Psychiatry Scand 63 33 36 Google Scholar Parker, G 1983 Parental ‘affectionless control’ as an antecedent to adult depression. A risk factor delineated Arch Gen Psychiatry 40 956 960 PubMed Google Scholar Parker, G, Tupling, H, Brown, LB 1979 A parental bonding instrument Br J Med Psychology 52 1 10 Google Scholar Platt, SD, Martin, CJ, Hunt, SM, Lewis, CW 1989 Damp housing, mould growth, and symptomatic health state Br Med J 298 1673 1678 CrossRef Google Scholar Riemsma, R, Taal, E, Wiegman, O, Rasker, JJ, Bruyn, GAW, van Paasen, HC 2000 Problematic and positive support in relation to depression in people with rheumatoid arthritis J Health Psychol 5 221 230 CrossRef Google Scholar Ross, LE, Sellers, EM, Gilbert Evans, SE, Romach, MK 2004 Mood changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period: development of a biopsychosocial model Acta Psychiatry Scand 109 457 466 CrossRef Google Scholar Soderberg, H, Janzon, L, Sjoberg, N-O 1998 Emotional distress following induced abortion: a study of its incidence and determinants among abortees in Malmo, Sweden Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 79 173 178 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Spitzer, RL, Endicott, J, Robins, E 1978 Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability Arch Gen Psychiatry 36 773 782 Google Scholar Stuart, S, O’Hara, MW, Gorman, LL 2003 The prevention and psychotherapeutic treatment of postpartum depression Arch Womens Ment Health 6 s57 s69 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Sugawara, M, Toda, MA, Shima, S, Mukai, T, Sakakura, K, Kitamura, T 1997 Premenstrual mood changes and maternal mental health in pregnancy and the postpartum period J Clin Psychol 53 225 232 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Symister, P, Friend, R 2003 The influence of social support and problematic support on optimism and depression in chronic illness: a prospective study evaluating self-esteem as a mediator Health Psychol 22 123 129 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Turell, SC, Armsworth, MW, Gaa, JP 2002 Emotional response to abortion: a critical review of the literature Arch Womens Ment Health 5 129 149 CrossRef Google Scholar Verkerk, GJM, Pop, VJM, Van Son, MJM, Van Heck, GL 2003 Prediction of depression in the postpartum period: a longitudinal follow-up study in high-risk and low-risk women J Affect Disord 77 159 166 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Vinokur, AD, Van Ryn, M 1993 Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons J Person Soc Psychol 65 350 359 CrossRef Google Scholar While, AE 1990 The incidence of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies among live births from health visitor records Child Care Health Devel 16 219 226 CrossRef Google Scholar Wilhelm, K, Parker, G 1988 The development of a measure of intimate bonds Psychol Med 18 225 234 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar World Health Organization 1990Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) World Health Organization Geneva Google Scholar