Original Article

Archives of Virology

, Volume 158, Issue 1, pp 87-96

Frequent detection and characterization of hepatitis E virus variants in wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia

  • MulyantoAffiliated withImmunobiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mataram
  • , Sulaiman Ngongu DepamedeAffiliated withImmunobiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mataram
  • , Made SriasihAffiliated withImmunobiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mataram
  • , Masaharu TakahashiAffiliated withDivision of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine
  • , Shigeo NagashimaAffiliated withDivision of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine
  • , Suljid JirintaiAffiliated withDivision of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine
  • , Tsutomu NishizawaAffiliated withDivision of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine
  • , Hiroaki OkamotoAffiliated withDivision of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine Email author 

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Abstract

One hundred sixteen rats (Rattus rattus) captured in Indonesia from 2011 to 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-specific antibodies and HEV RNA. Using an ELISA based on HEV genotype 4 with an ad hoc cutoff value of 0.500, 18.1 % of the rats tested positive for anti-HEV IgG. By nested RT-PCR, 14.7 % of the rats had rat HEV RNA, and none were positive for HEV genotype 1-4. A high HEV prevalence among rats was associated with lower sanitary conditions in areas with a high population density. Sixteen of the 17 HEV isolates obtained from infected rats showed >93.0 % nucleotide sequence identity within the 840-nucleotide ORF1-ORF2 sequence and were most closely related to a Vietnamese strain (85.9-87.9 % identity), while the remaining isolate differed from known rat HEV strains by 18.8-23.3 % and may belong to a novel lineage of rat HEV. These results suggest a wide distribution of rat HEV with divergent genomes.