, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 719-724

Treatment Strategies for Perianal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Report of Two Cases

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Intensive chemotherapy and high-dose radiation with complete excision of the tumor are the treatment of choice for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). However, because there are so few reports of perianal RMS, a mainstream treatment has not been established. We report two cases of perianal RMS and review 13 cases documented in Japan since 1990. Case 1 was a 7-year-old boy first treated by tumor excision followed by chemotherapy and external irradiation. He has since been tumor-free but suffered severe perianal erosion and ulceration. Case 2 was a 17-year-old girl first treated by preoperative chemotherapy to reduce the tumor size, after which the tumor was completely excised with anatomical guidance using three-dimensional computed tomography via the posterior sagittal approach, followed by open intraoperative irradiation. She has since been tumor-free with preserved anal function. These case reports show the importance of cogitated treatments for preservation of anal function and optimal therapeutic outcome in patients with perianal RMS.