, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 559-573,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Adherence to the preventive strategies for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug- or low-dose aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injuries

Abstract

As the aging of the population advances, the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or low-dose aspirin (LDA) is increasing. Their use is accompanied by a risk of serious complications, such as hemorrhage or perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, gastroprotective strategies upon the prescription of NSAIDs/LDA are outlined in several guidelines or recommendations. Because all NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors have cardiovascular (CV) toxicity, recent guidelines are based on not only GI risks but also CV risks of NSAID users. Assessment of the adherence to evidence-based guidelines or recommendations for the safe prescription of NSAIDs/LDA in clinical practice is an important issue. Here, we summarize randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the preventive effects of antisecretory drugs for NSAID- or LDA-induced peptic ulcers. Then, we describe preventive strategies upon the prescription of NSAIDs/LDA outlined in several guidelines or recommendations, and describe studies on adherence and outcomes of adherence to these preventive strategies. Finally, we discuss strategies to increase the adherence rate, and changing pattern of GI events associated with NSAIDs/LDA. In Japan, the preventive strategies upon the prescription of NSAIDs/LDA are expected to spread rapidly because the use of proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of recurrence of NSAID- or LDA-induced peptic ulcers and the use of COX-2 for the palliation of acute pain were recently approved under the national health insurance system. Further studies on adherence to the preventive strategies and the outcomes of adherence, which include both GI events and CV events, in the Japanese population are required.