Phenology – Milwaukee 2012

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 579-589

First online:

Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States

  • Carolyn A. F. EnquistAffiliated withNational Coordinating Office, USA National Phenology NetworkThe Wildlife SocietySchool of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona Email author 
  • , Jherime L. KellermannAffiliated withNational Coordinating Office, USA National Phenology NetworkSchool of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of ArizonaNatural Sciences Department, Oregon Institute of Technology and Science and Learning Center
  • , Katharine L. GerstAffiliated withNational Coordinating Office, USA National Phenology NetworkSchool of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona
  • , Abraham J. Miller-RushingAffiliated withSchoodic Education and Research Center and Acadia National Park, National Park Service

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate “actionable” science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.


Climate change Species interactions Forecasting Vulnerability assessment Phenology literacy