Review

Trees

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 975-992

Adventitious rooting of conifers: influence of physical and chemical factors

  • Carla RagoneziAffiliated withLaboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, University of Évora
  • , Krystyna KlimaszewskaAffiliated withNatural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, 1055 du PEPS
  • , Mário Rui CastroAffiliated withLaboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, University of Évora
  • , Mónica LimaAffiliated withLaboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, University of Évora
  • , Paulo de OliveiraAffiliated withLaboratory of Soil Microbiology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, University of Évora
  • , Maria Amely ZavattieriAffiliated withLaboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences, University of Évora Email author 

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Abstract

In conifers, vegetative propagation of superior genotypes is the most direct means for making large genetic gains, because it allows a large proportion of genetic diversity to be captured in a single cycle of selection. There are two aims of vegetative propagation, namely large-scale multiplication of select genotypes and production of large numbers of plants from scarce and costly seed that originates from controlled seed orchard pollinations. This can be achieved, in some species, either through rooted cuttings or rooted microshoots, the latter regenerated through tissue culture in vitro. Thus far, both strategies have been used but often achieved limited success mainly because of difficult and inefficient rooting process. In this overview of technology, we focus on the progress in defining the physical and chemical factors that help the conifer cuttings and microshoots to develop adventitious roots. These factors include plant growth regulators, carbohydrates, light quality, temperature and rooting substrates/media as major variables for development of reliable adventitious rooting protocols for different conifer species.

Keywords

Cuttings Gymnosperms In vitro culture Micropropagation Microshoots