Trees

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 975–992

Adventitious rooting of conifers: influence of physical and chemical factors

Authors

  • Carla Ragonezi
    • Laboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural SciencesUniversity of Évora
  • Krystyna Klimaszewska
    • Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, 1055 du PEPS
  • Mário Rui Castro
    • Laboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural SciencesUniversity of Évora
  • Mónica Lima
    • Laboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural SciencesUniversity of Évora
  • Paulo de Oliveira
    • Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural SciencesUniversity of Évora
    • Laboratory of Breeding and Plant Biotechnology, Institute of Mediterranean Agricultural SciencesUniversity of Évora
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00468-010-0488-8

Cite this article as:
Ragonezi, C., Klimaszewska, K., Castro, M.R. et al. Trees (2010) 24: 975. doi:10.1007/s00468-010-0488-8

Abstract

In conifers, vegetative propagation of superior genotypes is the most direct means for making large genetic gains, because it allows a large proportion of genetic diversity to be captured in a single cycle of selection. There are two aims of vegetative propagation, namely large-scale multiplication of select genotypes and production of large numbers of plants from scarce and costly seed that originates from controlled seed orchard pollinations. This can be achieved, in some species, either through rooted cuttings or rooted microshoots, the latter regenerated through tissue culture in vitro. Thus far, both strategies have been used but often achieved limited success mainly because of difficult and inefficient rooting process. In this overview of technology, we focus on the progress in defining the physical and chemical factors that help the conifer cuttings and microshoots to develop adventitious roots. These factors include plant growth regulators, carbohydrates, light quality, temperature and rooting substrates/media as major variables for development of reliable adventitious rooting protocols for different conifer species.

Keywords

Cuttings Gymnosperms In vitro culture Micropropagation Microshoots

Abbreviations

ACC

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

AOA

Aminooxyacetic acid

ARF

Adventitious root formation

AVG

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine

BA

6-Benzyladenine

cGMP

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CW

Cool white light

DCR

Gupta and Durzan (1985)

GA3

Gibberellic acid

GD medium

Gresshoff and Doy (1972)

GL

Growth-lux

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

L9 medium

Ewald (2007b)

LP medium

Quorin and Lepoivre (1977)

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MS medium

Murashige and Skoog (1962)

NAA

Naphthalene acetic acid

PGR

Plant growth regulator

PPFD

Photosynthetic photon flux densities

PS medium

Pinus strobus medium-Tang and Newton (2005a)

PBZ

Paclobutrazol

RD

Red-rich daylight

RIM medium

Abo El-Nil (1982)

RW medium

Risser and White (1964)

SH medium

Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972)

STS

Silverthiosulfate

TE medium

Tang et al. (1998)

TDZ

Thidiazuron

WPM medium

Lloyd and McCown (1981)

WW

Warm white

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010