Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease
Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population.
Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8–15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523–2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2–5, 6–13, and 14–18 years old, respectively.
Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.
KeywordsNutrient intake Food Children Adolescents Chronic kidney disease
Chronic Kidney Disease in Children
Chronic kidney disease
Dietary sources of nutrients
Estimated glomerular filtration rate
Estimated energy requirement
Food Frequency Questionnaire
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
National Kidney Foundation
Recommended dietary allowance